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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1765 matches for " avian influenza "
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Avian Influenza
S Chaudhary,VK Pahwa
Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jucms.v1i3.8750
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jucms.v1i3.8750
Influenza humana y aviaria: pasado, presente y futuro
Repetto D,Guillermo;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062006000100002
Abstract: review of the epidemiology of influenza in the last years, particularly in regard to the present avian influenza epidemics. in the past century, 3 severe human influenza pandemics caused by avian a virus rapidly spread throughout the world. according to clinical, laboratory and epidemiological evidences, risk of a new human pandemics exists caused by a high pathogenic avian influenza virus strain, being migratory birds its main carriers. initiated in hong-kong in 2003, it rapidly extended to population in turkey, rusia, macedonia and colombia; chile has not been affected yet. bird-human transmission has been documented in a limited number of cases, all in asia and half of them fatal, but the greatest hazard is that a new virus strain could acquire, by genetic rearrangement, the ability to infect humans and disseminate among them in an explosive way. the indications and limitations of its prevention and treatment are discussed, including epidemiologic surveillance, use of antiviral drugs and vaccines
Comparative study of haemagglutination inhibition, Agar gel precipitation test, Serum neutralization and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection to avian influenza viruses  [PDF]
Shahid Faraz, Muhammad Abubakar, Mohammad Farooque, Sarfaraz Ali Fazlani, Ghluam Hussain Jaffar
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.22016
Abstract: The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the serological tests for detection of avian in-fluenza viruses were carried-out by using Ham- agglutination inhibition (HI), Agar gel precipita-tion test (AGPT), and Enzyme linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA) and Serum neutraliza-tion test. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of hae- magglutination inhibition antibodies recor- ded as log2 indicated that the post vaccination titres in the field were on higher side i.e., 7.9 for H7 and 5.9 for H9. The correlation between HI titre and AGPT affirmed that for the AGPT test need high antibody titre for positive reaction. The pooled sera were also used to correlate the se-rum neutralization test and enzyme linked im- muno-sorbent assay. The serial two fold dilute- ons were tested for the serum neutralization ac- tivity and concluded that the HI titre log2 4 pro-vided 100% protection, than 52% and 45% pro-tection in 1:2 and 1:4 dilution was recorded, respectively. Similarly, the ELISA test showed positive results up to 1:16 HI titre, i.e. log2 4 and confirmed the linear relation between these two serological tests. In HI test, the concentration of antigen can influence the result. It also needs careful preparation of concentration of eryth-rocyte suspension. Agar Gel immuno-diffusion is basically a qualitative test as it can not de-termine the quantity of antigen or antibody with the help of this test. It lacks the level of sensi-tivity as offered by other test. If serum neutrali-zation test is performed on a pooled serum sam- ples, then it could lead to a false conclusion on antibodies status. ELISA is most sensitive, spe-cific and accurate as compare to all other sero-logical tests.
QCM Aptasensor for Rapid and Specific Detection of Avian Influenza Virus  [PDF]
Luke Brockman, Ronghui Wang, Jacob Lum, Yanbin Li
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor (OJAB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojab.2013.24013
Abstract: There has been a need for rapid detection of Avian Influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 due to it being a potential pandemic threat. Most of the current methods, including culture isolation and PCR, are very sensitive and specific but require specialized laboratories and trained personnel in order to complete the tests and are time-consuming. The goal of this study was to design a biosensor that would be able to rapidly detect AIV H5N1 using aptamers as biosensing material and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for transducing method. Specific DNA aptamers against AIV H5N1 were immobilized, through biotin and streptavidin conjugation, onto the gold surface of QCM sensor to capture the target virus. Magnetic nanobeads (150 nm in diameter) were then added as amplifiers considering its large surface/volume ratio which allows for faster movement and a higher target molecule binding rate. The result showed that the captured AIV caused frequency change, and more change was observed when the AIV concentration increased. The nanobead amplification was effective at the lower concentrations of AIV, however, it was not significant when the AIV concentration was 1 HA or higher. The detection limit of the aptasensor was 1 HAU with a detection time of 1 h. The capture of the target virus on to the surface of QCM sensor and the binding of magnetic nanobeads with the virus was confirmed with electron microscopy. Aptamers have unlimited shelf life and are temperature stable which allows this aptasensor to give much more consistent results specifically for in field applications.
The Stability of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Epidemic Model with Saturated Contact Rate  [PDF]
Shuqin Che, Yakui Xue, Likang Ma
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.521313
Abstract: In this paper we present a highly pathogenic Avian influenza epidemic model with saturated contact rate. According to study of the dynamics, we calculated the basic reproduction number of the model. Through the analysis of this model, we have the following conclusion: if R0 ≤ 1, there is only one disease-free equilibrium which is globally stable, the disease will die; if R0 > 1, there is only one endemic equilibrium which is globally stable, disease will be popular.
Assessment of the Level of Knowledge of the Nature of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Demonstrated by the Nigerian Veterinary Laboratory Staff Involved in HPAI Diagnosis in Nigeria  [PDF]
Bello Rabi’u Alkali, Kyauta Bulus Tanyigna, Yahaya Abubakar Yabo
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.54012
Abstract: The study was designed to evaluate the level of knowledge of Nigerian Veterinary Laboratory Staff on the nature of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) disease using structured questionnaires. The study comprised the Staff of National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) and five reference Veterinary Teaching Hospitals (VTH) designated for HPAI diagnosis. A total of 69 questionnaires were distributed to the laboratory staff. Questions on the general nature of the disease such as the cause, signs, mode of transmission, methods of identification, lesions, control and prevention, etc. were asked. The results showed that 77.38% of the staff answered all the questions correctly indicating their considerable knowledge of the HPAI disease. Considerable percentage of the staff listed correctly the equipment used for serology (36.23%) and RT-PCR (31.88%). Interestingly only 13.04% of the staff listed correctly the equipment used in rapid tests despite the fact that they are simpler and recommended for all P2 laboratories. In conclusion, the veterinary laboratory staff assessed demonstrated a significant level of knowledge on HPAI diagnosis; however, most of their laboratories lack the structure, organization, funds and basic facilities required for effective HPAI diagnosis.
Prevention of Avian Influenza Virus by Ultraviolet Radiation and Prediction of Outbreak by Satellite Parameters  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2018.117015
Abstract: The present study showed that avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in the regions with rice and wheat productions under low ultraviolet (UV) radiation while there were negligible AIV outbreaks in the regions with a high rate of skin cancer due to extensive UV radiation. It is therefore proposed that having artificial UV radiation with poultry farmhouses is a simple solution to suppress AIV outbreaks. AIV outbreaks can be predicted a few months in advance by remote sensing satellite parameters such as Cosmos (minimum sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar flux, high UV radiation), Poles (CO2, O3 hole deterioration, hydroxyl layer temperature, ice-melting, chlorophyll or algae, krill, penguin, guillemot), and Continents (migratory birds, desert dust, low UV radiation, waters, fish, rice and wheat, climate). Since there was an abrupt 2% rise of global CO2 emissions in 2017, while the minimum sunspot number is simultaneously reached at the end of 2018, there can be an extensive UV radiation for mutant AIV in the Poles to have the highest degree of damage by AIV in regions such as U.S., East Asia, China, South Korea, Japan, west Africa, and Europe from November of 2018 till April of 2019.
Influenza Aviar y Riesgo de Pandemia
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062008000400002
Abstract: influenza is a common season pathology that occasionally presents pandemia, caused by a new influenza a virus subtype that results from the genomic recombination of human virus with virus from other species. during the last years, there is a worldwide alert situation in terms of a new pandemia, due to the existence of influenza a virus subtype h5n1 in birds from southeast asia, europe and africa. there are some sporadic cases in humans produced by close exposure with infected birds. the present article reviews the virologic characteristics of influenza a h5n1 virus in humans and the chilean guidelines for a potential pandemia. influenza is a respiratory disease produced by influenza virus a,b,c, being the a type the most important due to its capacity to change structure and cause epidemia or pandemia. the last pandemias were classified as spamsh flu in 1918-1919 (h1n1), asian flu in 1957 (h2n2) and the hong-kong flu in 1967 (h3n2), with the biggest death population in 1918. in template countries, influenza presents in epidemia affecting the winter months; in tropical countries, the virus circulation occurs during the whole year
Experimental Study of Renal Tubular Cells Apoptosis Subsequent to Infectious by Influenza Virus (H9N2) in SPF Chickens
Yousef Doustar,Daryoush Mohajeri,Younes Anzabi,Mehrdad Nazeri
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: Influenza virus produces cell death in animals and human. Since cell death can be caused by either necrosis or apoptosis. We investigated the types of cell death that occur in chickens infected with avian influenza virus, A/chicken/Iran/772/2000(H9N2). In experimental study 60 SPF chickens at 3 weeks old were divided to two groups. The first group was infected with 107.5 EID50 titer of the virus intranasaly and the second group was treated with saline normal. Following 72 hrs, renal tissues were collected and fixed in 10% formalin solution. The prepared microscopic sections with the thickness of 5-6 micron were stained using TUNEL method. In comparison to the control group, there were significant mean difference of apoptotic cells in renal tubular cells of the infected group (p<0.005). We demonstrated that A/chicken/Iran/772/2000 (H9N2) is able to induce apoptosis in renal tubular cells.
The Comparison of Substrate Stability in Neuraminidase Type 2 (N2) Active Site between A/Tokyo/3/67 and A/Pennsylvania/10218/84 with Heating Dynamics Simulation  [PDF]
Sigit Jaya Herlambang, Rosari Saleh
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2011.13013
Abstract: A molecular dynamics simulation of two neuraminidase-sialic acid (NA-SA) complexes show a difference of the level of stability between sialic acid and neuraminidases that originated from viruses A/Tokyo/3/67 (Structure A) dan A/Pennsylvania/10218/84 (Structure B). Analyses of sialic acid RMSD and the change of torsional angles suggest that the sialic acid in Structure A is much more twisted and able to be influenced more by the binding of the neuraminidase functional residues than Structure B. Moreover, analyses upon hydrogen bond occupancy and binding free energy of both complexes showed that Structure A had more stable hydrogen bonds and each complex’s binding free energy were calculated to be –1.37 kcal/mol and 17.97 kcal/mol for Structure A and Structure B, respectively, further suggesting stability more dominant in Structure A than Structure B. Overall, Structure A has a more stable enzyme-substrate than Structure B.
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