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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16390 matches for " at-risk drinking "
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At-Risk Drinking Among Diabetic Patients
Susan E. Ramsey,Patricia A. Engler
Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment , 2009,
Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus is a serious chronic disease, affecting an increasing number of individuals worldwide. Adherence to diabetes self-care behaviors is key to the successful management of the disease. At-risk drinking is common among diabetic patients and is associated with inferior diabetes treatment adherence and outcomes, resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, individuals with diabetes who engage in at-risk drinking are also in danger of incurring the negative consequences of at-risk drinking found in the general population. Research suggests that alcohol use screening and intervention do not commonly occur during the course of primary care treatment for diabetes. While methods for reducing alcohol use in this population have been largely unexplored to date, brief interventions to reduce at-risk drinking have been well-validated in other patient populations and offer the promise to reduce at-risk drinking among diabetic patients, resulting in improved diabetes treatment adherence and outcomes.
Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults
Korczak, Dieter,Steinhauser, Gerlinde,Dietl, Markus
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven before they are launched. At present activities for the reduction or prevention of risky alcohol consumption are not sufficiently evaluated in Germany concerning their sustainable efficacy.
Resiliência oculta: a constru??o social do conceito e suas implica??es para práticas profissionais junto a adolescentes em situa??o de risco
Libório, Renata Maria Coimbra;Ungar, Michael;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722010000300008
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to present the main concepts and ideas about resilience developed by michael ungar. at first, it will be discussed his post-modern approach of resilience and the social construction of the phenomenon. thereafter, it will be presented the concept of hidden resilience related to unusual coping strategies. researches carried out with adolescents in canada and other countries solidified the conception of resilience as an experience associated to the individual's capacity to develop resources associated to his/her well-being and the condition of the individual's family and community to provide such resources in culturally meaningful ways. it will also deal with implications for professional practices with at-risk adolescents.
Predicting performance at medical school: can we identify at-risk students?
Shaban S, McLean M
Advances in Medical Education and Practice , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S19391
Abstract: edicting performance at medical school: can we identify at-risk students? Original Research (3218) Total Article Views Authors: Shaban S, McLean M Published Date May 2011 Volume 2011:2 Pages 139 - 148 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S19391 Sami Shaban, Michelle McLean Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores) on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk. Methods: An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school program at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, over the past 14 years. Results: While high school scores were significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with the final integrated examination, predictability was only 6.8%. Scores for the United Arab Emirates university placement assessment (Common Educational Proficiency Assessment) were only slightly more promising as predictors with 14.9% predictability for the final integrated examination. Each unit or module in the first four years was highly correlated with the next unit or module, with 25%–60% predictability. Course examination scores (end of years 2, 4, and 6) were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the average scores in that 2-year period (59.3%, 64.8%, and 55.8% predictability, respectively). Final integrated examination scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with National Board of Medical Examiners scores (35% predictability). Multivariate linear regression identified key grades with the greatest predictability of the final integrated examination score at three stages in the program. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it may be possible to identify “at-risk” students relatively early in their studies through continuous data archiving and regular analysis. The data analysis techniques used in this study are not unique to this institution.
Examining the Sensory Profiles of At-Risk Youth Participating in a Pre-employment Program
Chi-Kwan Shea Ph.D., OTR/L,Robyn Wu OTD, OTR/L, BCP
Open Journal of Occupational Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to use Dunn’s model of sensory processing to investigate the sensory profiles of youth participating in a community-based occupational therapy pre-employment program. The youth participants had been involved in the juvenile justice system and were placed on probation. The studyanalyzed data from the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) questionnaires (Brown & Dunn, 2002) completed by 79 youth participants. Analysis of the participants’ scores on the AASP showed statistically significant differences from the norm in two quadrants; the delinquent youth scored lower in Sensation Seeking and higher in Sensation Avoiding. The delinquent youth participants demonstrated a high prevalence of atypical sensory processing patterns. Implications for further investigation and practice are discussed.
The College of Optometrists in Vision Development –QOL Questionnaire in a socially at-risk population of youth
Willard B. Bleything, OD, MS, FAAO, FCOVD,Sandra L. Landis, OD, FCOVD
Optometry & Vision Development , 2008,
Abstract: Background: The literature reports a highprevalence of visual dysfunction in those populationsthat are socially at-risk. This research is designedto determine the effectiveness of the College ofOptometrists in Vision Development - QOL (COVDQOL)Questionnaire in this special population.Methods: Youth enrolled in a special high school(n=123) were given vision screenings followed bycomprehensive optometric examinations for thosereferred (n=55). Twenty-four were placed into avision therapy group and 31 into a control group fora period of 12 weeks. Prescription lenses were alsoprovided, as needed.Results: Significant differences were measuredon the COVD-QOL between those who passed thescreening and those who failed. Also, significant pretestand post-test differences were found on thosesubjects within both the vision therapy and controlgroups. When a cutoff score of 20 was used, thevision therapy group showed greater improvement insymptom scores than the control group.Conclusions: The COVD-QOL questionnairedifferentiated between subjects found to be at visual risk and those not at visual risk when using overallscores and cutoff scores and is better suited to measurepre-test/post-test intervention results rather than asan alternative visual screening battery.Bleything WB, Landis SL. Effectiveness of the College of Optometristsin Vision Development – QOL Questionnaire in a socially at riskpopulation of youth. Optom Vis Dev 2008;39(2):82-90.
Effect of Physical Activity on Anxiety and Depression Among Women: Risk Profiles
Aurelio Olmedilla-Zafra**,Enrique Ortega-Toro***
Universitas Psychologica , 2009,
Abstract: Scientific literature indicates that there is a positive relationship between exercise and various psychological aspects such as anxiety and depression. Some sociodemographic variables also seem to be involved in this relationship, and socio-cultural factors can be important. The objectives of the present study were to find out the influence of the practice of physical activity on anxiety and depression and to determine the profiles at greater risk with regard to certain sociodemographic variables (age, level of studies, occupation, and children). The sample was composed of 200 women from the city of Cartagena, Spain, between 18 and 65 years of age. Results show that the most vulnerable groups of women for suffering greater levels of anxiety and depression are characterized by the following profiles: anxiety (sedentary women, between 18-24 years of age or older than 54 years, who have not completed studies or those with secondary studies, housewives or those who work outside the home, and those without children) and depression (sedentary women, older than 54 years of age or between 18-24 years, those with secondary studies, and housewives).
Using triangulation in targeting social interventions for at-risk-children
Manuela Sofia STANCULESCU,Monica MARIN
Revista de Cercetare ?i Interven?ie Social? , 2011,
Abstract: This paper aims to substantiate the selection of communities to be involved in a project on developing institutional capacity to provide social assistance prevention services in the rural area. The proposed methodology is based on a triangulation approach in a two-stage model, combining statistical data with interviews with institutional stakeholders.
Hidden resilience: the social construction of the concept and its implications for professional practices with at-risk adolescents / Resiliência oculta: a constru o social do conceito e suas implica es para práticas profissionais junto a adolescentes em situa o de risco
Renata Maria Coimbra Libório,Michael Ungar
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the main concepts and ideas about resilience developed by Michael Ungar. At first, it will be discussed his post-modern approach of resilience and the social construction of the phenomenon. Thereafter, it will be presented the concept of hidden resilience related to unusual coping strategies. Researches carried out with adolescents in Canada and other countries solidified the conception of resilience as an experience associated to the individual's capacity to develop resources associated to his/her well-being and the condition of the individual's family and community to provide such resources in culturally meaningful ways. It will also deal with implications for professional practices with at-risk adolescents.
Efeitos do uso do álcool e das drogas ilícitas no comportamento de adolescentes de risco: uma revis?o das publica??es científicas entre 1997 e 2007
Heim, Joanna;Andrade, Arthur Guerra de;
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-60832008000700013
Abstract: background: international research indicates that there is a strong association between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency and the risk factors related to law infraction. in brazil however, few studies have been carried out to investigate such relationships. objectives: the aim of this study was to conduct a review of the research that focuses on the topics of alcohol, drugs, and delinquency; verifying the relationship between psychoactive drug abuse and juvenile delinquency. methods: a review of scientific papers published from 1997 to 2007 selected on the basis of the keywords: adolescence, alcohol, illegal drugs, and delinquency. conclusions: studies indicate that the use of alcohol and illegal drugs among at-risk adolescents is high, and starts early when compared with non-risk adolescents; suggesting that the substance abuse is an important part of the at-risk delinquency problems.
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