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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8572 matches for " assessment "
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Perturbating the assessment of individuals and groups: Listening for challenges to mathematics teacher educators
Chris Breen
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v33i4.121
Abstract: In this article I begin by focusing on different ways in which the term assessment can be understood and practised. Having done this, I turn my gaze onto one particular teacher education situation and explore student teacher assessment as they are prepared for a career in teaching. In describing some of the particular ways in which I try to heighten the awareness of this particular group of student teachers regarding assessment and evaluation, I reflect on the experience and pose questions for teacher educators in general to consider about their own practice.
GUIDEA—Guidance for Dietary Intake and Exposure Assessment—A New Resource for Exposure Assessment Professionals  [PDF]
John Howlett, Neil Buck, Matthew Buck, Jeanne H. M. de Vries, Veronika Ehrlich, Melody Hove, Astrid G. Kruizinga, Pratima R. Jasti, Benjamin Smith, David Tennant
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.43042

Exposure assessment is a key component of any risk-benefit assessment, yet it is clear that there is a lack of reliable methodology in this area for assessing consumer exposures to both food constituents and nonfood products. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe Food Intake Methodology Task Force has in the past explored methods to assess the intake of nutrients/additives and exposure to contaminants/residues from food. In December 2008, a workshop was held to discuss the differences between different types of exposure assessments as well as the difficulties involved in the practical application of the methods available. It was noted that although no two assessments are the same in terms of data required and its availability, or the assumptions made, there is also wide and perhaps unnecessary variation between the approaches taken by different assessors. As a result, the ILSI Europe Food Intake Methodology Task Force initiated an activity aimed at producing a practical guide for conducting intake/exposure assessments in the form of an interactive web-based application. During the course of this work it became clear that the best form in which to present the guide would be a web-based MediaWiki-type system. A website was developed and launched in October 2012, at which time global experts and practitioners in dietary exposure assessment were invited to register to use the site and help keep the knowledge contained within it, relevant and up-to-date. It is hoped that the guide will be an important reference source for a wide group of stakeholders, providing concise guidance on the planning, conduct, reporting and interpretation of exposure assessments and contributing to greater harmonisation of the dietary intake/exposure methodologies used.

Classroom Assessment Techniques: An Assessment and Student Evaluation Method  [PDF]
Dawn-Marie Walker
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326136
Abstract: Some of the challenges that face Higher Education are how to ensure that assessment is meaningful and that feedback is prompt in order to promote learning. Another issue is how to provide lecturers with feedback regarding their efficacy, in a timely and non-judgmental manner. This paper proposes that Classroom Assessment Techniques (Angelo and Cross, 1993), maybe a good way of answering both of those issues. They are quick and easy tasks set within the lecture, which tests the student’s knowledge, providing an immediate opportunity for further elaboration if needed by the lecturer, therefore providing immediate feedback to the students. It also ensures that the lecturer has delivered the most salient messages, therefore also providing feedback to the lecturer.
Sacramento Assessment Center: A Comprehensive Multi-Perspective Model for Effective Assessment of Juvenile Offenders  [PDF]
Paul Jenkins, Mark Conroy, Andrew Mendonsa
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.47079

The Sacramento Assessment Center is a residential-based assessment service utilized by the Juvenile Justice system in Sacramento County, California. This service utilizes a multi-dimensional approach to assessment, looking closely at ten different areas of functioning, including psychological, psychiatric, criminological, substance use, educational, occupational, recreational, social attachment, medical, and placement adjustment. The paper describes both the rational for and the process of this assessment, exploring the personnel and tools required to produce this level of service to adjudicated youth. The general conclusion is that an extensive, multi-dimensional assessment is an important service to render, in order to identify criminological needs, specify appropriate placement and services, and thus make the most efficient use of limited resources available to serve this population and lower recidivism rates.

Unique Screener of Reading Fluency and Comprehension for Adolescents and Adults  [PDF]
Sherry Mee Bell, Kelli Caldwell Miller, Ralph Steve McCallum, Michael Hopkins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31007
Abstract: Because there are few brief reading fluency screeners available for older adolescents and adults we developed one, then investigated its psychometric properties, obtained for 161 college students. Two experimental versions of this unique, silent, group-administered screener of reading fluency and comprehension require adolescents and adults either to read and identify ideas or words (i.e., word chaining) within connected text of increasing difficulty. Both instruments and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993) were administered in counterbalanced order. Results indicate moderately strong relationships (r values ranged from .52 to .63) between both versions of the screener and Nelson-Denny comprehension and rate scores. These data provide preliminary evidence of validity for these screeners for this population. The format requiring examinees to identify ideas produced slightly higher correlations with Nelson-Denny comprehension scores than did the word chain format. Both may be useful because they can be created from existing curriculum materials and are efficient (i.e., group administered) and quick (requiring only 5 minutes).
Student Evaluations: Synchronous Tripod of Learning Portfolio Assessment—Self-Assessment, Peer-Assessment, Instructor-Assessment  [PDF]
Jenna-Lynn Senger, Rani Kanthan
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31025
Abstract: Background: Learning portfolios are increasingly being introduced in higher education including undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. Due to their highly personalized nature, creation of an assessment tool that accurately reflects the value for the learner of the ‘work’ created is challenging, and has prevented a more widespread use of this valuable tool. Innovation & Evaluation: Forty-one physical therapy students were asked to create a learning portfolio as a component of their pathology course. This collection of evidence of learning was evaluated at the midterm and final examination by a synchronous tripod of assessors-the ‘self’, a peer, and the instructor- to provide a formative and summative evaluation. Results: Grades awarded by the three assessors were more similar at the end of the semester when compared with those at the midterm. A quantitative and qualitative satisfaction questionnaire was additionally given to students to determine the usefulness of this educational activity. Though the majority of students responded favourably, with notable self-reported improvements in communication, team-work, and professional growth, primary challenges included negative perceptions related to increased time commitment, student and teacher-related stress, and uncertainty regarding the value and the immediate and long-term relevance of this creative learning activity. Conclusion: Reflection on our study authenticates that the combination of formative and summative evaluations from such tripod assessments of learning portfolios is particularly suited for explicit inclusion in higher educational programs including medicine and allied health professionals. We recommend learning portfolios as a creative learning tool and assessment tool in higher education.
Desirability of a standard notation for fisheries assessment  [PDF]
Sergio Ragonese, Sergio Vitale
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48057

The worldwide increase of the publications concerning the assessment of marine renewable living resources is highlighting long-standing problems with symbols and annotations. Starting from the symbols presented within the classic fisheries masterpieces produced, mainly in the fifty of the last century, a first “Milestone” list was organised. Thereafter, the pertinent literature was (not exhaustively) browsed in order to integrate this Milestone list on the base of a set of decisional criteria. The present contribution consists in using the Latin letters as well established symbols for the corresponding parameters, leaving free to specific use (with few historical exceptions) the Greek letters in view to open a discussion among all the fisheries scientists and bodies in order to move towards a common language and better communication standards.

Studies for Intervention and Effect Assessment on Arsenism  [PDF]
Yajuan Xia, Kegong Wu, Zhiwei Guo, Weihong Yang, Yanhong Li, Jun Liu
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.58A006

Chronic exposed to high arsenic via drinking water is worldwide public health problem. A large number of epidemiological studies showed that exposed to arsenic cause the human body skin lesions and also induce cancer, cardiovascular and other kind of diseases. So arsenism not only affect the person’s work capability and life quality but also result in economic losses and mental suffering. How to prevent and control the effects of high arsenic? What intervention is more important and necessary for arsenism? How to scientifically assess the interventions effect of short-term and long-term? Through a systematic follow-up investigation in different high arsenic regions in Inner Mongolia, the environmental arsenic and human body internal arsenic exposure were analyzed, the clinical characteristics and signs of arsenism patients were examined. We established the evaluation system of intervention and control measures for population exposed to high arsenic. This evaluation system and control measures included government and exposed population. For government, change water supply and keep it work well and health education is very important. For exposed population, improving the diet and treating the symptoms or signs related to arsenic is more necessary. Arsenic in human body such as nail or urine sample arsenic must be reduced to normal value and this index show that the subject if still or not expose to high arsenic.

Towards More Efficient Assessments: Increasing Information from Objective Examinations  [PDF]
Alan E. Dugdale
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.46A007

Objective examination questions are widely used to assess students knowledge, but the standard MCQ with a stem followed by 4 - 6 possible answers one of which is chosen as correct is very inefficient. Simple changes to the format can treble the information gained. Information theory is the tool for assessing the information content of electronic and other communications. The “bit” is the unit of information and equals on true/false choice. I have applied basic information theory to objective questions. The standard MCQ with a stem, a choice of 4 possible answers (mark one answer true) and an expected correct answer rate of 70% yields 1.36 bits. A MTFQ with 4 choices where the student must answer true/false to every possible answer gives 3.52 bits of information. By adding a “dont know” option the same MTFQ gives 4.72 bits of information, 350% of the standard MCQ. Thirty MTFQ with dont know give the same information about students knowledge as 100 standard MCQs. The effort needed to set, sit and mark is the same for both. Small changes to the format of objective questions give large gains in efficiency. We should balance these gains against possible disadvantages.

Concurrent and Criterion-Referenced Validity of Trunk Muscular Fitness Tests in School-Aged Children  [PDF]
Ryan D. Burns, James C. Hannon, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Gregory J. Welk
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.42007

A cause of limited physical activity levels in youth is the presence of low back pain (LBP), therefore proper assessment of low back function in physical education settings is needed to identify children who may be at risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent and criterion-referenced validity of field tests of low back and core muscular endurance in school-aged children. The sample consisted of 4th through 10th grade students (N = 370) who completed low back and core muscular fitness tests on four separate testing days during their physical education classes. Field measures related to low back function included the Box 90° Trunk Extension (Box 90°) and the FITNESSGRAM Trunk Extension (FG-TE). Field measures related to overall core function consisted of a Lateral Plank, Prone Plank, and a Static and Dynamic Curl-up. Criterion measures of low-back muscular endurance included the Parallel Roman Chair Dynamic Trunk Extension (PRC-DTE) and the Parallel Roman Chair Static Trunk Extension (PRC-STE). Multivariate analysis using canonical correlations showed moderate correlations between low back and core measures (P < .001). The Lateral Plank, Prone Plank, and Dynamic Curl-up had moderate-to-strong canonical cross-loadings with the low back measure variate. The FG-TE displayed an insignificant canonical coefficient, and weak canonical loadings and cross-loadings. Measures of overall core function also significantly agreed with the criterion measures in classifying students into ranked tertile groups (P < .001). These results suggest that assessment of specific low back muscular function can be easily evaluated using tests of overall core muscular endurance as an alternative to the FG-TE in physical education settings.

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