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First Evidence of Hantavirus in Central Iran as an Emerging Viral Disease  [PDF]
Sadegh Chinikar, Abbas Ali Javadi, Arash Hajiannia, Behroz Ataei, Tahmineh Jalali, Sahar Khakifirouz, Norbert Nowotny, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.44024

Hantavirus is a zoonosis transmitted from rodents to humans. Asymptomatic infected rodents can secrete hantaviruses in the urine, feces, and saliva. The main route of infection transmission to human is aerosols contaminated with the virus. This study was designed to evaluate the serological and molecular prevalence of hantavirus as an emerging zoonoses disease among street sweepers in Isfahan province, central Iran. Serum samples from 200 street sweepers in healthy condition and those with recent renal failure were tested by ELISA (IgM and IgG). Molecular analysis was subsequently applied for IgM positive cases. From these samples, 9 (4.5%) were positive, of which 2 (22.22%) were positive for both IgM and RT-PCR, while 7 (77.77%) were positive for IgG. The mean age and work experience of the positive cases were 39.7 and 11.5 respectively. According to our observations, all positive cases reported prevalence of rodents in their work place. The logistic regression test showed that the age and work experience were not risk factors for being positive, but prevalence of rodents in work place was a risk factor for being positive, when compared with negative cases. This is the first comprehensive study on the prevalence of hantavirus with positive results coming from Iranian population, which can raise the public awareness for the hantavirus infections as a public health threat.

Vigilancia sorológica para arbovírus em Juruti, Pará, Brasil
Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro;Prazeres, Assis do Socorro Correa dos;Gama, Eliana Colares;Lima, Maxwell Furtado de;Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro Silva;Casseb, Lívia Medeiros Neves;Nunes Neto, Joaquim Pinto;Martins, Lívia Carício;Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira;Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro;Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001100021
Abstract: this study aimed to measure the prevalence of antibodies to arboviruses in the area affected by the juruti project before local mining operations. a total of 1,597 human and 85 wild animal sera were examined, using the hemagglutination inhibition test against 19 antigens from the most prevalent arboviruses in the brazilian amazon and igm-elisa for dengue and yellow fever. positive sera for mayaro and oropouche viruses were also tested by igm-elisa. prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses in humans was 28.7%, while for wild animals it was 8.2% for flaviviruses. recent infections based on presence of igm was confirmed for mayaro (n = 5), oropouche (n = 23), and dengue (n = 20). the results showed active circulation of the dengue, mayaro, and oropouche viruses in juruti, as well as flaviviruses in wild animals, suggesting the circulation of these viruses in the municipality of juruti.
An overview of Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iran
Sadegh Chinikar
Iranian Journal of Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic tick-born disease with a mortality rate of up to 50% in humans. After a short incubation period, the disease is characterized by sudden fever, chills, severe headache, dizziness, back, and abdominal pain. Additional symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular changes. In severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations, ranging from petechiae to large areas of ecchymosis develop. The CCHF Virus (CCHFV) is from the genus Nairovirus and family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected tick and by direct contact with blood or tissue from infected humans and livestock. In addition to zoonotic transmission, CCHFV can be spread from person to person and is one of the rare hemorrhagic fever viruses able to cause nosocomial outbreaks in hospitals. CCHF is a public health problem in many regions of the world e.g Eastern Europe, Asia, Middle East, and Africa. The history of CCHF in Iran shows that the disease has been detected in Iran since 1970. From 1970 to 1978 some scientists worked on serology and epidemiology of this disease in humans and livestock in Iran. Since 1999 , establishment of a surveillance and laboratory detection system on viral hemorrhagic fevers particularly on CCHF has had benefits. One of which is the fact that a mortality rate approaching 20% in the year 2000 remarkably dropped to 6% in the year 2007.
Xenodiagnosis: use of mosquitoes for the diagnosis of arboviral infections
D.T. Mourya, M.D. Gokhale , R. Kumar
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2007,
Abstract: The arboviruses have a worldwide distribution and, mosquitoes and ticks contribute principally intheir transmission. In the last two decades, arboviral diseases have been recognised due to theirresurgence and spread in newer geographic areas. Surveys to determine the prevalence of arbovirusesin any region largely depend on the isolation attempts from the arthropods along with the serosurveys.Xenodiagnosis means use of insects for the diagnosis of infectious diseases affecting humanbeing. The present communication discusses the application of mosquitoes for propagation and assaysof arboviruses, the technique of mosquito inoculation and importance of xenodiagnosis.
Francisco Anilton Alves Araujo,Pedro Cerqueira Lima,Maria Auxiliadora Andrade,Valéria De Sá Jayme
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against arboviruses in wild birds in two serological surveys conducted in Salinopólis/Para State. A total of 544 birds of 17 species were captured, being nine resident and eight migratory. Blood was collected from 350 birds for virus isolation, but no virus was isolated. Of the 95 sera in which the hemagglutination inhibition test was performed, 14.7% were reactive to alphavirus, 9.5% to flavivirus and 7.4% to bunyavirus. Of the positive reactions, 84.9% occurred in migratory birds and 15.1% i resident birds. The proportions of positive reactions to the test among migratory and resident birds were 31.5% and 18.2%, respectively, which was not statistically different (p> 0.05). For alphaviruses, the species Pluvialis squatarola showed 28.6% positivity, followed by 11.8% in Arenaria interpres. For flaviviruses, only the species Sterna superciliares and Calidris pusilla were reactive to the hemagglutination inhibition test. Regarding the bunyavírus, the Arenaria interpres was 5.9% positive for the Oropouche virus. Migratory birds have proved to be important amplifiers of the arboviruses surveyed, although no viruses were isolated. Some bird species have greater amplification capacity of certain arboviruses than others. Virus isolation in wild birds is difficult, in view of the need of blood sampling in animals within the viremic period.
Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae) in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest
Laporta, Gabriel Zorello;Ribeiro, Milton Cezar;Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas;Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2012000200003
Abstract: mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. aedes serratus (theobald), aedes scapularis (rondani) and psorophora ferox (von humboldt) are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in vale do ribeira, located in the atlantic forest in the southeast of the state of s?o paulo, brazil. the objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of cananéia, iguape and ilha comprida. in these localities the incidence of rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. furthermore, ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the state of rio grande do sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern atlantic forest. considering the continental dimensions of brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.
Clave fotográfica para hembras de Haemagogus Williston 1896 (Diptera: Culicidae) de Venezuela, con nuevo registro para el país
Liria,Jonathan; Navarro,Juan-Carlos;
Boletín de Malariología y Salud Ambiental , 2009,
Abstract: the neotropical genus heamagogus williston includes mosquitoes with diurnal activity and immature breeding on phytotelmata (tree-holes and cut bamboo internodes). haemagogus species have been involved in sylvatic yellow fever transmission, a virus circulating in forest areas in latin america among arboreal primates and marsupials by means of mosquito bite. the genus comprises 28 species, nine of them occurring in venezuela. one of these, haemagogus (comopostegus) clarki, is a new record for this country. we show here an update of the taxonomic status and the geographical distribution of the genus in venezuela and the first photographical key using simple terms for non-expert personnel.
The Acre Project: the epidemiology of malaria and arthropod-borne virus infections in a rural Amazonian population
Silva-Nunes, M?nica da;Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos;Luz, Bruna de Almeida;Souza, Estéfano Alves de;Martins, Lívia Carício;Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro;Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira;Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa;Muniz, Pascoal Torres;Ferreira, Marcelo Urbano;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2006000600021
Abstract: the authors describe the baseline malaria prevalence and arbovirus seroprevalence among 467 subjects in an ongoing cohort study in rural amazonia. most subjects (72.2%) reported one or more previous episodes of malaria, and 15.6% had been hospitalized for malaria, but only 3.6% of individuals five years or older had malaria parasites detected by microscopy (10 with plasmodium vivax and 4 with p. falciparum). antibodies to alphavirus, orthobunyavirus, and/or flavivirus were detected by hemagglutination inhibition (hi) in 42.6% of subjects aged five years or older, with a higher seropositivity rate among males (49.2%) than females (36.2%). since 98.9% of subjects had been immunized for yellow fever, the presence of cross-reactive antibodies to dengue and other flaviviruses cannot be ruled out, but at least 12 subjects (3.3%) with igm antibodies to dengue virus detected by elisa had a putative recent exposure to this virus.
Concurrent dengue and malaria in the Amazon region
Santana, Vinícius dos Santos;Lavezzo, Lígia Carolina;Mondini, Adriano;Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes;Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Moraes;Rossit, Andrea Regina Baptista;Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas;Rahal, Paula;Nogueira, Mara Correa Lelles;Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822010000500007
Abstract: introduction: the amazon region has extensive forested areas and natural ecosystems, providing favorable conditions for the existence of innumerous arboviruses. over 200 arboviruses have been isolated in brazil and about 40 are associated with human disease. four out of 40 are considered to be of public health importance in brazil: dengue viruses (1-4), oropouche, mayaro and yellow fever. along with these viruses, about 98% of the malaria cases are restricted to the legal amazon region. methods: this study aimed to investigate the presence of arboviruses in 111 clinical serum samples from patients living in novo repartimento (pará), plácido de castro (acre), porto velho (rond?nia) and oiapoque (amapá). the viral rna was extracted and rt-pcr was performed followed by a multiplex-nested-pcr, using flavivirus, alphavirus and orthobunyavirus generic and species-specific primers. results: dengue virus serotype 2 was detected in two patients living in novo repartimento (pará) that also presented active plasmodium vivax infection. conclusions: despite scant data, this situation is likely to occur more frequently than detected in the amazon region. finally, it is important to remember that both diseases have similar clinical findings, thus the diagnosis could be made concomitantly for dengue and malaria in patients living or returning from areas where both diseases are endemic or during dengue outbreaks.
Seroepidemiological monitoring in sentinel animals and vectors as part of arbovirus surveillance in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Batista, Paulo Mira;Andreotti, Renato;Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira;Ferreira, Milene Silveira;Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822012000200006
Abstract: introduction: from february-september 2010, seroepidemiological surveys were conducted on non-human primates and transmitter vector capture was used to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in the municipalities of bonito, campo grande, and jardim, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil. methods: a total of 65 primates from the wild and captivity were used, and potential vectors were captured using castro and dip nets. serum samples were tested at the instituto evandro chagas, state of pará, using the hemagglutination inhibition test to detect total antibodies against 19 different arboviruses. virus isolation was attempted from serum samples and arthropod suspensions using newborn mice and the c6/36 cell line clone. in addition, identification of the vector species was conducted. results: from the 19 serum samples from campo grande, 1 sample had a 1:20 titer for flavivirus. from the 35 samples collected in bonito, 17 samples had antibodies to arboviruses, 4 (11.4%) were positive for alphavirus, and 5 (14.2%) were positive for flavivirus. monotypic reactions were observed for the mayaro (n = 10) and oropouche (n = 5) viruses, and 6 (17.1%) samples had titers for >1 virus. we captured 120 culicidae individuals that were potential arbovirus transmitters in jardim; however, all the samples were negative for the viruses. conclusions: mato grosso do sul has a variety of vertebrate hosts and transmission vectors, thereby providing ideal conditions for the emergence or reemergence of arboviruses, including some pathogenic to human beings.
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