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Association between Children’s Appetite Patterns and Maternal Feeding Practices  [PDF]
Tomomi Ainuki, Rie Akamatsu
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.23032
Abstract: This study explored associations between children’s appetites and maternal feeding practices. The participants, 614 parents of 3- to 6-year-old children from kindergartens in Tokyo, Japan, completed self-administered questionnaires. The children’s appetites were measured using the Enjoyment of Food (EF) and Food Responsiveness (FR) scales of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Using cluster analysis, we examined three appetite patterns (“both low,” “high EF and low FR,” and “both high”). The three appetite patterns were associated with children’s obesity index. The “both low” pattern was associated with the highest maternal pressure to eat. The “high EF and low FR” patterns were related to an established snack time. The “both high” pattern was associated with higher maternal instrumental feeding compared with the “high EF and low FR” types. The results of this study will facilitate the development of targeted interventions and better parental guidance on maternal feeding practices and their association with children’s eating behaviours.
The Effect of Dexamethasone on Side Effects after Coronary Revascularization Procedures
Abbaszadeh M,Hosainkhan Z,Soliemani A,Rabbani A
Payavard Salamat , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: Corticosteroids decrease side effects after noncardiac elective surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the prophylactic effects of IV dexamethasone (6mg×2) in preventing side ef-fects after cardiac surgery.Methods and Materials: In a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled study 184 ASA physical status I or Il patients ranging 40-82 undergoing coronary revascularization surgery were enrolled in Imam Khomeini Hospital, medial sciences university of Tehran.Dexamethasone (6mg/mL) or saline (1mL) was administered after the just before surgery and a second dose of the same study drug was given on the morning after surgery. The patients were assessed at 24 and 48h intervals after surgery as well as at the time of hospital discharge, to determine the incidence and severity of postoperative side effects.Results: Dexamethasone significantly reduced the incidences of nausea (P=0.034) and vomiting on the first postoperative day (P=0.005). In addition, dexamethasone significantly improves appetite on the first postoperative day (P=0.005). The corticosteroid decreased the incidences of atrial fibrillation AF (P=0.018) in the postoperative period. However, the corticosteroid failed to decrease the incidences postoperative pain.Conclusion: dexamethasone (12 mg in divided doses) is suggested in reducing nausea and vomiting, decreases of atrial fibrillation and improving appetite after cardiac surgery.
Effects of Pyridoxine on Selected Appetite Regulating Peptides mRNA Expression in Hypothalamic PVN/ARC Nuclei and Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues  [PDF]
Lei Liu, Haoqi Wang, Haitao Sun, Chunyan Fu, Hongli Liu, Yuqing Sun, Xianghua Xu, Weiji Chen, Wenqiang Wu, Fuchang Li
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2017.89020
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary pyridoxine on the gene expression of appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract of rabbits. Thirty-two rabbits were randomly divided into 2 treatments for 8 weeks (16 replicates/group and 1 rabbit/replicate). The treatments were fed a basal diet (control, measured pyridoxine content is 4.51 mg/kg) and the basal diet with a pyridoxine supplementation at 10 mg/kg (pyridoxine, measured pyridoxine content is 14.64 mg/kg). The results showed that dietary pyridoxine did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y, agouti related peptide, pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine, amphetamine regulated transcript, peptide YY and cholecystokinin in arcuate nucleus, peptide YY in jejunum and ileum, and cholecystokinin in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P > 0.05). Compared with the control, the mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and melanocortin 4 receptor in paraventricular nuclei and peptide YY in duodenum were significantly decreased after pyridoxine treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the appetite genes of melanocortin 4 receptor and corticotropin-releasing hormone in paraventricular nuclei and peptide YY in duodenum are involved in the pyridoxine-caused hyperphagia.
Osorio E.,Jessica; Weisstaub N.,Gerardo; Castillo D.,Carlos;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182002000300002
Abstract: development of eating behavior and associated skills during infancy is a complex process which involves the physiological regulation of intake; growth; body weight; psychological aspects of the child, parents, and family as a whole, and social and cultural influences. alterations of eating behavior are commonly observed, and may be associated with failure to thrive, food aversions and difficulties in family life. management of these alterations must be based on a preventive education to the mother during the infant's first 2 years of life, in behavioral induction of changes in family environment, and as a last resort, with the use of orexigenic medications
Clinical Approach to Children with Low Appetite
Fatih ünal
Güncel Pediatri , 2011,
Abstract: Appetite is a conscious desire for food and it is regulated mainly by the gastrointestinal system, pancreas and adrenal glands. Poor appetite is a common problem in childhood. For assessment, history of development, nutrition and family are important. Poor appetite may also be a symptom of feeding disorders. Even though the etiology of feeding disorders may be classified as organic or functional, it indeed reflects the complex interaction of biological, behavioral and social factors. Personal, familial, economic and sociocultural factors may affect appetite. In this review, approaches to a child with low appetite who presents a difficult problem for his/her family and doctor are discussed in the light of recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 79-84)
Molecular Insights into Appetite Control and Neuroendocrine Disease as Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases in Western Countries  [PDF]
I. J. Martins, Rhona Creegan, W. L. F. Lim, R. N. Martins
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.35A002

Environmental factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are important to consider with the global increase in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stroke, obesity, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Brain metabolic diseases associated with conditions such as obesity and diabetes require early intervention with diet, lifestyle and drug therapy to prevent diseases to various organs such as the liver with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and other organs such as the heart, lungs thyroid, pancreas, brain, kidneys and reproductive systems. Behavioural stress and the molecular mechanisms that are involved in neuroendocrine diseases such as insulin resistance in obesity require attention since associated inflammatory processes early in the disease process have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular neuroendocrine disturbances that cause appetite dysregulation and hyperphagia are closely linked to hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidaemia and reduced lifespan. The origins of metabolic diseases that afflict various organs possibly arise from hypothalamic disturbances with loss of control of peripheral endocrine hormones and neuropeptides released from the brain. Diet and drug therapies that are directed to the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine and limbic systems may help regulate and integrate leptin and insulin signals involving various neuropeptides associated with chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The understanding of brain circuits and stabilization of neuroanatomical structures in the brain is currently under investigation. Research that is involved in the understanding of diet and drugs in the stabilization of brain structures such as frontostriatal limbic circuits, hypothalamus brainstem circuits and parasympathetic nervous system is required. Information related to neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that are released from the brain and their regulation by therapeutic drugs requires further assessment. The promise of appropriate diets, lifestyle and drugs that target the CNS and peripheral tissues such as the adipose tissue, liver and pancreas may improve the prognosis of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes that are also closely associated with neurodegeneration.

A Study of Changes in Risk Appetite in the Stock Market and the Housing Market before and after the Global Financial Crisis in 2008 Using the vKOSPI  [PDF]
Jin Yong Yang, Sang-Heon Lee
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.411077
Abstract: This study analyzes the empirical relationship between the vKOSPI, which is the Korean VIX (implied volatility index), and the housing market (rent1-to-house price ratio) based on monthly data from January 2003 to November 2012. The data were divided into two parts before and after the global financial crisis in 2008 and were analyzed by using the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Model. The research results show that the influence of vKOSPI on the housing market changes from symmetric to asymmetric since the global financial crisis in 2008. Before the global crisis in 2008, the influence of the vKOSPI on the house price index and rent index is almost the same, so the influence on the rent-to-house price ratio is not statistically significant. However, since the global crisis in 2008, the influence of the vKOSPI on the two prices has changed asymmetrically and the influence on the rent-to-house price ratio was statistically significant. Second, the influence of the vKOSPI fluctuation on house sale prices and rent is shown differently according to the rise/fall of the vKOSPI. In the event of the vKOSPI rising, house prices would fall greatly. On the other hand, in the event of the vKOSPI falling, the rise in housing prices is relatively small. This means that while the boosted sentiment of investors in the stock market is not transferred to the housing sales market, the aggravated sentiment of investors affects the housing sales market easily. In conclusion, the uncertainty has been represented in the vKOSPI and the preference for risky assets has an asymmetrical influence on the market dependent upon the kind of market. We suspect that this is caused by complex factors including shrinking expectations for future house prices.

Effect of High-Protein Breakfast Meals on Within-Day Appetite and Food Intake in Healthy Men and Women  [PDF]
William Buosi, David M. Bremner, Graham W. Horgan, Claire L. Fyfe, Alexandra M. Johnstone
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.63039
Abstract: Breakfast is considered an important meal for daily appetite control. We examined the effect of high-protein breakfasts on within-day appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum intake, in men and women. Twenty subjects attended on 4 occasions, to consume in a randomised order high-protein (30% energy) breakfast meals, as, 1) maintenance (MTD) fed to energy requirements (2.67 MJ), 2) a weight-loss (WL) bacon-based meal breakfast (WL-B, 2.13 MJ), 3) a WL-chicken salad (WL-CS, 2.13 MJ) and 4) a WL-smoothie (WL-S, 2.08 MJ). The 3 HP-WL breakfasts elicited differences in hunger (p = 0.007), fullness (p = 0.029), desire to eat (p = 0.006) and prospective consumption (p = 0.020). The WL-B meal reduced hunger (p = 0.002) and enhanced fullness (p = 0.02), compared with the two other WL breakfasts. Although these differences were not reflected in ad libitum energy intake later in the day, a HP breakfast can modify morning satiety, which is important during dieting.
Association of Protein Energy Wasting with Income in CKD Stage 3 Patients  [PDF]
Anita Saxena, Amit Gupta
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B008

Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a major challenge in CKD. Objective: To assess PEW in predialysis patients on their first visit to a nephrologist. Methods: Three day dietary intake of 484 CKD stage 3 patients was taken. Appetite was assessed with ADAT. Patients were divided into groups based on appetite and BMI. Results: Male and female parameters are serum albumin 3.7 ± 0.84/3.68.8 ± 0.81 g/dL, total protein 7.02 ± 1.27/6.94 ± 1.26 g/dL, creatinine 4.68 ± 4.19/3.74 ± 3.36 mg% creatinine clearance 33.22 ± 30.48/37.55 ± 33.87 ml/minute, BMI 22.60 ± 4.29/23.43 ± 4.77kg/m2 energy/kg 16.97 ± 0.65/16.8 ± 0.64, protein g/kg 0.65 ± 0.28/0.64 ± 0.30, carbohydrate g/kg 2.98 ± 1.54/2.98 ± 0.1.36, fat g/kg 2.98 ± 0.23/2.79 ± 0.22, respectively. As appetite decreased, dietary protein and energy intake decreased significantly. Appetite in males and females: Average 14.46%, 4.13%, poor 9.7%, 18.18%, anorexic 13.2%, 7.4%. Income had strong correlation with BMI (p 0.000), dietary protein (p 0.000), energy (p 0.000) and carbohydrate (p 0.000). Appetite correlated with creatinine (p 0.019), dietary energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat (p 0.000) intake. BMI correlated (p 0.000) with fat, carbohydrate, energy and creatinine clearance. ANOVA showed significant difference within and between appetite groups in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, creatinine clearance (p 0.000) and serum albumin (p 0.025). There was significant difference in protein (p 0.026), energy intake (p 0.000) and creatinine clearance (p 0.038) within and between BMI groups. Based on income, there was significant difference among groups in BMI (p 0.000), energy (p 0.019), protein (p 0.031) and albumin (0.001).

Anti-Aging Genes Improve Appetite Regulation and Reverse Cell Senescence and Apoptosis in Global Populations  [PDF]
Ian James Martins
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2016.51002
Abstract: Appetite regulation by nutritional intervention is required early in life that involves the anti-aging gene Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) with Sirt 1 maintenance of other cellular anti-aging genes involved in cell circadian rhythm, senescence and apoptosis. Interests in anti-aging therapy with appetite regulation improve an individual’s survival to metabolic disease induced by gene-environment interactions by maintenance of the anti-aging genes connected to the metabolism of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, drugs and xenobiotics. Interventions to the aging process involve early calorie restriction with appetite regulation connected to appropriate genetic mechanisms that involve mitochondrial biogenesis and DNA repair in neurons. In the aging process as the anti-aging genes are suppressed as a result of transcriptional dysregulation chronic disease accelerations and connected to insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Interests in the gene-environment interaction indicate that the anti-aging gene Sirt 1that regulates food intake has been repressed early in the aging process in various global populations. The connections between Sirt 1 and other anti-aging genes such as Klotho, p66Shc (longevity protein) and Forkhead box proteins (FOXO1/ FOXO3a) have been associated with programmed cell death and alterations in these anti-aging genesregulate glucose, lipid and amyloid beta metabolism that are important to various chronic diseases.
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