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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6483 matches for " anti-predator "
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Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator
A Koboroff,G Kaplan,LJ Rogers
PeerJ , 2013, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.56
Abstract: Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian) known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development). We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping) were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.
Energy-expending behaviour in frightened caribou when dispersed singly or in small bands
Otto Blehr
Rangifer , 1997,
Abstract: The behaviour of single, and small bands of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) when confronted by humans was compared with the energy—saving behaviour zoologists have ascribed to caribou in encounters with non-hunting wolves (Canis lupus). When confronted by me, or upon getting my scent, caribou ran away on all occasions. Their flight was occasionally interrupted by short stops to look back in my direction, but would continue on all occasions until they were out of sight. This behaviour is inconsistent with the one ascribed to caribou by zoologists when the intruder is a wolf instead of a human. In their view, the caribou stop their flight soon after the wolf gives up the chase, and accordingly save energy owing to their ability to distinguish between hunting and non-hunting wolves. However, small bands of caribou, as well as single animals, have never been observed to behave in this manner. On the contrary, the behaviour of caribou in such encounters is known to follow the same pattern as in their encounters with humans. Energy—saving behaviour is, however, sometimes observed when caribou become inquisitive about something in their surroundings. They will then readily approach as well as try to get down-wind of the object. When the object does not induce fear, it may simply be ignored, or charged before the caribou calm down. The effect of this "confirming behaviour" is that energy which would otherwise have been spent in needless flights from non-predators is saved.
Tonic immobility in terrestrial isopods: intraspecific and interspecific variability
Aline Quadros,Priscila Bugs,Paula Beatriz de Araujo
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2355
Abstract: Many arthropods, including terrestrial isopods, are capable of entering a state of tonic immobility upon a mechanical disturbance. Here we compare the responses to mechanical stimulation in three terrestrial isopods Balloniscus glaber, B. sellowii and Porcellio dilatatus. We applied three stimuli in a random order and recorded whether each individual was responsive (i.e. showed tonic immobility) or not and the duration of the response. In another trial we related the time needed to elicit tonic immobility and the duration of response of each individual. Balloniscus sellowii was the least responsive species and P. dilatatus was the most, with 23% and 89% of the tested individuals, respectively, being responsive. Smaller B. sellowii were more responsive than larger individuals. Porcellio dilatatus responded more promptly than the Balloniscus spp. but it showed the shortest response. Neither sex, size nor the type of stimulus explained the variability found in the duration of tonic immobility. These results reveal a large variability in tonic immobility behavior, even between closely related species, which seems to reflect a species-specific response to predators with different foraging modes.
Response of brown anoles Anolis sagrei to multimodal signals from a native and novel predator
Omar L. ELMASRI, Marcus S. MORENO, Courtney A. NEUMANN, Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN
Current Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: Multiple studies have focused on the importance of single modalities (visual, auditory, olfactory) in eliciting anti-predator behavior, however multiple channels are often engaged simultaneously. While examining responses to multiple cues can potentially reveal more complex behavioral responses, little is known about how multimodal processing evolves. By contrasting response to familiar and novel predators, insights can be gained into the evolution of multimodal responses. We studied brown anoles’ (Anolis sagrei) response to acoustic and visual predatory cues of a common potential predator, the great-tailed grackle Quiscalus mexicanus and to the American kestrel Falco sparverius, a species found in other populations but not present in our study population. We observed anole behavior before and after a stimulus and quantified rates of looking, display, and locomotion. Anoles increased their rate of locomotion in response to grackle models, an effect modulated by grackle vocalizations. No such response or modulation was seen when anoles were presented with kestrel stimuli. This suggests that the degree of sophistication of anole response to predators is experience dependent and that relaxed selection can result in reduced anti-predator response following loss of predators [Current Zoology 58 (6): 791–796, 2012].
Color change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas
Martin Stevens,Alice E. Lown
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2014.00014
Abstract: Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator defense in nature, with many different types thought to exist. Of these, resembling the general color and pattern of the background (background matching) is likely to be the most common. Background matching can be achieved by adaptation of individual appearance to different habitats or substrates, behavioral choice, and color change. Although the ability to change coloration for camouflage over a period of hours or days is likely to be widely found among animals, few studies have quantified this against different backgrounds. Here, we test whether juvenile shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) are capable of color change for camouflage by placing them on either black or white (experiment 1) or red and green (experiment 2) backgrounds. We find that crabs are capable of significant changes in brightness, becoming lighter on white backgrounds and darker on black backgrounds. Using models of predator (avian) vision, we show that these differences are large enough in many individuals to lead to perceptible changes in appearance. Furthermore, comparisons of crabs with the backgrounds show that changes are likely to lead to significant improvements in camouflage and potentially reduced detection probabilities. Crabs underwent some changes on the red and green backgrounds, but visual modeling indicated that these changes were very small and unlikely to be detectable. Our experiment shows that crabs are able to adjust their camouflage by changes in brightness over a period of hours, and that this could influence detection probability by predators.
Morphological and developmental plasticity in larvae of Physalaemus santafecinus (Anura: Leiuperidae) in response to chemical cues of different predators
Valeria I. Gómez,Arturo I. Kehr
Phyllomedusa : Journal of Herpetology , 2011,
Abstract: Many antipredator responses are mediated or induced by the ability of the prey to identify chemical cues of predators. The presence of chemicals produced by predators may alert tadpoles to the presence of the predators, and a heightened response to alarm cues orpredator presence may increase the possibility of prey survival. We examined changes in morphology, and growth and development rates of Physalaemus santafecinus tadpoles reared in the presence of chemical cues of water beetles (Hydrophilidae) and a fish (Characidae). We recorded the time to metamorphosis, as well as weights of metamorphicindividuals to determine if the larval stage is accelerated. The experiments were performed under microcosm conditions, with three treatments—chemical cues from fish, water beetles, and a control group. Each treatment was replicated 30 times. To obtain independent data from different variables, treatments were conducted on individual larvae in separate containers. The principal results were, as follow. (1) Larval morphology was significantlyaffected by the presence of a predator. (2) Control tadpoles were significantly larger than those subjected to the other two treatments (cues of water beetles and fish). (3) Growth anddevelopment rates did not differ significantly among any treatments. (4) Neither time to metamorphosis nor weights of metamorphs varied significantly among treatments. Our results suggest that tadpoles are able to perceive predators by chemical cues released in thewater, and P. santafecinus tadpoles alter their morphology to chemical cues that indicate predation. However, chemical cues of predators had no detectable effect on growth rate and developmental rates of these tadpoles.
Range size and seasonal movement for female woodland caribou in the boreal forest of northeastern Ontario
Glen S. Brown,Frank F. Mallory,James Rettie
Rangifer , 2003,
Abstract: A preliminary examination was conducted of range size and distribution of female woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northeastern Ontario. Annual and seasonal ranges were calculated using satellite telemetry data collected for 30 female caribou between 1998 and 2001. The mean annual home range size of collared females was 4026 km2. Seasonal ranges varied in size depending on time of year (P<0.05). Calving and summer ranges were significantly smaller than autumn and late winter ranges. Early winter ranges were significantly larger than calving ranges and smaller than late winter ranges. Overall, range sizes of female woodland caribou in northeastern Ontario were larger than those reported for caribou in other Boreal Forest regions across Canada.
Learned predation risk management by spider mites
Peter Schausberger
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2014.00058
Abstract: Predation is a prime selective force shaping prey behavior. Investment in anti-predator behavior is traded-off against time and energy for other fitness-enhancing activities such as foraging or reproduction. To optimize this benefit/cost trade-off, prey should be able to innately and/or by experience modulate their behavior to the level of predation risk. Here, we assessed learned predation risk management in the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. We exposed spider mites coming from benign (na?ve) or high immediate predation risk (experienced) environments to latent and/or no risk and assessed their site choice, activity and oviposition. Benign environments were characterized by the absence of any predator cues, high immediate risk environments by killed spider mites, physical presence of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and associated chemosensory traces left on the surface, and latent risk environments by only predator traces. In the no-choice experiment both na?ve and experienced spider mites laid their first egg later on leaves with than without predator traces. Irrespective of predator traces presence/absence, experienced mites laid their first egg earlier than na?ve ones did. Na?ve spider mites were more active, indicating higher restlessness, and laid fewer eggs on leaves with predator traces, whereas experienced mites were less active and laid similar numbers of eggs on leaves with and without predator traces. In the choice experiment both na?ve and experienced spider mites preferentially resided and oviposited on leaves without predator traces but experienced mites were less active than na?ve ones. Overall, our study suggests that spider mites experienced with high predation risk behave bolder under latent risk than na?ve spider mites. Since predator traces alone do not indicate immediate risk, we argue that the attenuated anti-predator response of experienced spider mites represents adaptive learned risk management.
Anti-predator behavior of tadpoles of Rana daunchina to a novel crawfish (Procambarus clarkii)
仙姑弹琴蛙蝌蚪对陌生捕食者克氏原螯虾的反捕反应

戴强,戴建洪,李成,刘志君,王跃招
生物多样性 , 2004,
Abstract: 以峨眉山的仙姑弹琴蛙 (Ranadaunchina)蝌蚪作为猎物 ,该地区潜在的入侵物种克氏原螯虾 (Procambarusclarkii)为捕食者 ,于冬季设计实验观察仙姑弹琴蛙蝌蚪对陌生入侵捕食者的反捕行为反应。实验按照 3× 3× 2因子设计 ,即 :捕食者状况 3个水平 (食植物的克氏原螯虾、食蝌蚪的克氏原螯虾和无捕食者 ) ,蝌蚪年龄组 3个水平(31- 35期的 2 .5龄蝌蚪、2 6 - 30期的 1.5龄蝌蚪和 2 5期的 0 .5龄蝌蚪 ) ,以及蝌蚪短期经验 2个水平 (有经验和无经验 )。实验发现 :有短期被捕食经验的蝌蚪的活动时间极显著低于无被捕食经验的蝌蚪 ,而静止时间以及隐蔽所利用时间却极显著地高于无经验的蝌蚪 ;短期经验和捕食者状况的交互效应对蝌蚪的活动时间有显著影响 ;而蝌蚪年龄、捕食者状况及其交互效应对蝌蚪的行为反应没有显著影响。这表明 ,有短期被捕食经历的仙姑弹琴蛙蝌蚪并未通过个体学习建立起对陌生捕食者克氏原螯虾的识别能力 ,而是表现出无针对性的活动性受抑、隐蔽时间增加的行为反应。如果自然条件下的仙姑弹琴蛙蝌蚪也有类似反应 ,在克氏原螯虾入侵初期 ,仙姑弹琴蛙蝌蚪则可能会由于无法识别新的捕食者而表现出过度的反捕行为反应 ,承受更大的亚致死作用 ,而对种群生存造成不利影响
The exp(-φ(ξ))-Expansion Method and Its Application for Solving Nonlinear Evolution Equations  [PDF]
Mahmoud A. E. Abdelrahman, Emad H. M. Zahran, Mostafa M. A. Khater
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2015.41004
Abstract: The exp(-φ(ξ))-expansion method is used as the first time to investigate the wave solution of a nonlinear dynamical system in a new double-Chain model of DNA and a diffusive predator-prey system. The proposed method also can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations.
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