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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1629 matches for " ant venom "
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Characterization of the allergen Sol gem 2 from the fire ant venom, Solenopsis geminata
Sukprasert, S;Uawonggul, N;Jamjanya, T;Thammasirirak, S;Daduang, J;Daduang, S;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000300010
Abstract: sol i 2 is a potent allergen in solenopsis invicta venom, and most humans exhibit reactivity to it. the sol gem 2 allergen found in the venom of the thai tropical fire ant solenopsis geminata was analysed in the present study. the protein was present in higher amounts than other proteins, as determined by sds-page, and presumably has allergenic properties similar to those of sol i 2. sol gem 2 molecular weight is 28 and 15 kda, respectively, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, indicating that its native form is a dimer. lc-ms/ms analysis confirmed its similarity to sol i 2. the mono/dimeric form of sol gem 2 was determined to be relevant by proteomic approach and immunoblotting. an anti-sol gem 2 antibody was produced in mice, with a titer greater than 1:800 according to the western blotting analysis. the sol gem 2-neutralising activity of this antibody was determined in crickets. the paralytic dose 50 (pd50) of crude s. geminata venom was elevated from 0.18 mg/g of body weight to more than 0.90 mg/g of body weight after preincubation with antibody at a ratio of 1:1. these results suggest that sol gem 2 plays an important role in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom.
The venom apparatus and other morphological characters of the ant Martialis heureka (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Martialinae)
Brand?o, Carlos Roberto Ferrreira;Diniz, Jorge Luis Machado;Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado;
Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (S?o Paulo) , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0031-10492010002600001
Abstract: we describe and illustrate the venom apparatus and other morphological characters of the recently described martialis heureka ant worker, a supposedly specialized subterranean predator which could be the sole surviving representative of a highly divergent lineage that arose near the dawn of ant diversification. m. heureka was described as the single species of a genus in the subfamily, martialinae rabeling and verhaagh, known from a single worker. however because the authors had available a unique specimen, dissections and scanning electron microscopy from coated specimens were not possible. we base our study on two worker individuals collected in manaus, am, brazil in 1998 and maintained in 70% alcohol since then; the ants were partially destroyed because of desiccation during transport to s?o paulo and subsequent efforts to rescue them from the vial. we were able to recover two left mandibles, two pronota, one dismembered fore coxa, one meso-metapropodeal complex with the median and hind coxae and trochanters still attached, one postpetiole, two gastric tergites, the pygidium and the almost complete venom apparatus (lacking the gonostylus and anal plate). we illustrate and describe the pieces, and compare m. heureka worker morphology with other basal ant subfamilies, concluding it does merit subfamilial status.
Bioactivity of Samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis) venom against lipopolysaccharides through antioxidant and upregulation of Akt1 signaling in rats
Ebaid Hossam,Al-Khalifa Mohamed,Isa Ahmed M,Gadoa Saad
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-11-93
Abstract: Background This study aimed at investigating the oxidative stress ameliorating effect, lipids profile restoration, and the anti-inflammatory effect of Samsum Ant Venom (SAV) in induced endotoxemic male rats, injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Results Results revealed that LPS significantly increased the oxidative stress indications in LPS-injected rats. A significant increase of both malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP), as well as a significant suppression of glutathione were all detected. Treatment with 100 μg/kg dose of SAV significantly restored the oxidative stress normal indications and increased the total glutathione levels. Treatment of the LPS-rats with 100 μg/kg dose of SAV showed a clear anti-inflammatory function; as the histological architecture of the hepatic tissue was partially recovered, along with a valuable decrease in the leukocytes infiltrated the hepatic tissues. Treatment of some rat groups with 600 μg/kg dose of SAV after LPS injection induced a severe endotoxemia that resulted in very high mortality rates. SAV versus the effects of LPS on AKT1, Fas, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA expression. SAV was found to significantly lower Fas gene expression comparing to the LPS group and restore the level of IFN-γ mRNA expression to that of the control group. Conclusion In conclusion, SAV, at the dose of 100 μg/kg body weight, maintained and restored the oxidative stability, the anti-inflammatory, and the hypolipidemic bioactivity in rats after induced disruption of these parameters by LPS injection. This improvement by SAV was mediated by upregulation of AKT1.
Inhibition of Toxic Effects of Viper and Cobra Venom by Indian Medicinal Plants  [PDF]
M. I. Alam
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.58093

The mortality rate from snakebites in West Bengal is very high and most of the deaths are caused by the Daboia russelli and Naja naja envenomation. Twenty-three plants from the seventeen families were collected from the traditional healers and explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. In our previous report, the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plants Pluchea indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis significantly neutralized the Viper and Cobra venom-induced pathophysiological changes [1][2]. In the present study, we explored four plant extracts (Curcuma aromatica, Aristolochia indica, Androgrphis paniculata and Curcuma zeodaria) for the antisnake venom activity. The plant extracts significantly antagonized Daboia russelli, Echis carinatus

Evaluación de dos frecuencias de colecta de apitoxina extraída de colmenas de Apis mellifera L. durante la época estival en la Región de La Araucanía
Araneda Durán,Ximena; Leichtle Cifuentes,Yerko; Morales Ulloa,Daniza;
Idesia (Arica) , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-34292011000200019
Abstract: abstract the experiment was carried out from 7 january to 9 march 2006 in the apiary of the pillanlelbún experimental centre of the catholic university of temuco, located 15 km north of temuco, araucania region, chile. here the production of apitoxin extracted from the hives of bees (apis mellifera (hymenoptera: apidae) was evaluated. the experiment was carried out using apitoxin extractors of a canadian type which function by electro-stimulation. three hives were used for each treatment and different extraction frequencies were evaluated: every 20 days (t1) and every 30 days (t2). the variables analysed were: effect on the weight of the colonies, bee mortality and quantity of apitoxin extracted. no significant differences were found between the variables studied (weight colonies p = 0.127, bee mortality p = 0.827, and amount of bee venom p = 0.507) and it was therefore concluded that its is recommended to carry out extractions every 30 days rather than every 20 days, since it is preferable to do this operation at longer time intervals in order to reduce operation costs and disturbance of the bees.
B. Kalyan kumar,,S.S. Nanda,,P. Venkateshwarlu,,Y. Kiran kuma
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2010,
Abstract: Snakebite is a common medical emergency in the tropical region causing Multisystemic Involvement. Treatment with Antisnake venom (ASV) is life saving yet dangerous. ASV usage remains a very risky, because the serum being heterologous and liable to cause sensitivity reactions in occasional patients. The world of ASV production is currently a gloomy place to visit. The Methodology of Antivenom serum preparation has not advanced much since its discovery; Procedures of Immunisation and Purification have been improved using Modern Technology. The Improved Purification of Antivenom by using Immunoglobulin fragments has leads to increased tolerance, efficiency and safety of Antivenom. The future of Immunotherapy seems to be good. This Article gives Prominence to ASV production, purification and quality control, Dose and Administration of ASV, Incidence of Adverse Reactions and its proposed Treatment.
A new fibrinogenase from Echis multisquamatis venom is a perspective agent for limited proteolysis and defibrinogenation  [PDF]
Volodymyr O. Chernyshenko, Olha V. Gornytska, Tetyana M. Platonova, Liudmyla I. Sokolovska
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.12013
Abstract: A serine proteinase with a fibrinogenase activity was isolated from the venom of viper Echis multisquamatis. Isolation was performed by the combination of Q-sepharose and Heparine-agarose chromatography. The enzyme has apparent molecular weight 35 ± 1 kDа. It posesses strong fibrinogen β-chain, moderate αchain proteolytic activity, arginine-amidase activity as the majority of serine fibrinogenases. The Km value was determined for β-chain fibrinogenolytic activity: Km = 8.3 µM. Kinetic parameters for amidase activity were also determined. Amino-acid composition was revealed. Limited hydrolysis of fibrinogen by the obtained fibrinogenase allowed us to detemine stable hydrolytic subproducts with definite molecular weights. The manner of the proteolytic processes suggests possible use of this fibrinogenase in probing fibrinogen structure dinamics by limited proteolysis. Applicability of the obtained fibrinogenase in therapeutic practice is speculative, but presented data about its nature are encouraging and require additional investigation.
Investigation of the Biochemical and Histological Changes Induced by Zearalenone Mycotoxin on Liver in Male Mice and the Protective Role of Crude Venom Extracted from Jellyfish Cassiopea Andromeda  [PDF]
Madeha Al-Seeni, Nagwa El-Sawi, Soad Shaker, Asma Al-Amoudi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24045
Abstract: Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species of fungi which contaminate human foods and animal feeds worldwide. In this study hepatotoxicity of ZEN was evaluated in mice by oral adminis-tration of single and repeated doses of ZEN mycotoxin (2.7 mg/kg b.w.). The protective effect of crude venom extracted from jellyfish Cassiopea andromeda was also assessed. Mice were divided into four groups (N = 10). G1: receiving the toxin once and sacrificed 48 h later, G2: toxin administered twice for one week, G3: toxin administered twice a week for two weeks, G4: pretreated orally by a single dose of crude venom (1.78 mg/20g) 24 hours prior to administration of ZEN twice a week for two weeks. Each treated group had its corresponding control which received 1% DMSO sa-line.ZEN treatment significantly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartateaminotrnsferase (AST) and alka-line phosphatase (ALP) activities after 48 hours and two weeks, while ALT was also significantly increased after one week. Tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF-α) level was undetected in treated and control groups except the group treated with ZEN for one week. Alphafetoprotein (AFP) level was increased significantly only after two weeks. The activity of antioxidants was significantly increased in all groups. ZEN was also found to modify the serum proteins especially gamma-globulin which showed a significant decrease after 48 h and two weeks. Improvement in liver func-tion occurred in the group pretreated with the crude venom, and AFP and antioxidants returned to normal level, while TNF-α level was also undetected. Gamma globulin was significantly increased. The recovery observed in the group which was pretreated with crude venom may related to bradykinin content of this venom which exhibits a hepatoprotective effect. Histological changes in mouse liver coincided with biochemical changes. In conclusion, this study revealed that ZEN induced liver function and structural changes promising an approach for using a crude venom of jellyfish to enhance liver function.
Analysis of the Hypervariable Regions (HVRs) of the wsp Gene of Wolbachia from Solenopsis invicta Ants in Southeastern Brazil  [PDF]
Rodrigo Fernando de Souza, Cíntia Martins, Roberto Manoel Pereira, Odair Correa Bueno
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2014.23021
Abstract: Wolbachia is a bacterium that infects many arthropods with horizontal or vertical transmission. The introduction and spreading of Solenopsis invicta in new areas may have influenced the acquisition of Wolbachia as this ant species spread from its South America origin to other parts of the globe. The wsp gene of Wolbachia was analyzed using the WSP Typing and a similarity analysis was conducted to analyse the sharing of the symbiont among nests of S. invicta ants. The analyses revealed the presence of two groups of Wolbachia: strain A belonging to InvA S. invicta subgroup, and the strain B belonging to Acromyrmex insinuator. The wsp gene and its hypervariable regions are shared among the Wolbachia present in different types of ants inhabiting in the New World. Wolbachia strains found in the nests of S. invicta are ant-specialist symbionts which may have spread by several means among the ant population.
In vitro Anticancer Effect of Scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus and Egyptian Cobra Venom on Human Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Mohamed Alaa A. Omran
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Venoms and toxins from some snakes are known to influence the growth of cancer cells. In this study we determine the potential efficacy, the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of scorpion L. quinquestriatus and snake Naja haje venoms, two potent toxins, on two established human breast and four prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of both venoms on cancer cells survival and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was determined during 24 h incubation with three different concentrations. Morphological and pathological alterations to all treated cell lines were also monitored. Snake venom is more potent as antitumor agent than scorpion venom for both breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The results showed high selectivity of scorpion toxins for the breast cancer T47D cell line. LC50 values of cobra venom in the two breast cancer cell lines, were 18 g/ml in T47D cells and 63 g/ml in MDAMB-468 cells. On the other hand, the range of the LC50 values in case of prostate cancer cell lines were between 38 and 61 g/ml. Percentage of cell death was time and dose-dependent in most cell lines. Cobra venom induced significant cell death of breast cancer cell line T47D 98% and MDAMB-468 75% after 24 h incubation with 100 g/ml. Also, the highest snake venom dose killed 98, 94 and 84% of prostate carcinoma DU145, PC-3 and TSUpr1, respectively. Morphologically, dying cells showed fragmentation, condensation of their contents concomitant with shrinkage and appearance of vacuoles between adherent cells. Cells were swollen before they destruct and cellular debris was observed in the media with floating dead cells. In conclusion, results provides a rational for in vivo studies to determine whether scorpion L. quinquestriatus and Egyptian cobra venoms will provide effective therapy for breast and prostate cancer especially in the cases of metastasis.
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