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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1143 matches for " and Pakistani Organizations "
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Organizational Justice in Performance Appraisal System: Impact on Employees Satisfaction and Work Performance
Mubashar Munir Kaleem
International Journal of Management and Organizational Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Performance appraisal plays a vital role in human resource management system. It is used by organizations for the provision of development programs, reward allocation and also to provide fairness perception to employees about their tasks, jobs, organization, managers, and departments. It is a continuous process through which communication is affectively made between supervisors and employees of an organization. Job satisfaction of employee is necessary for increasing performance of work (Suliman, 2007), the employee need a good performance appraisal system for enhancing work performance. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of organizational justice (Procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice) with work performance with the mediation of performance appraisal satisfaction. The correlation and regression was used to analyze the variables and the results show that there is positive and significant relationship between organizational justice and work performance in manufacturing firms of Pakistan. There is also mediation of performance appraisal satisfaction and it enhances the work performance if present. The fairness perception of employee in performance appraisal process is most important factor which increase work performance of an employee in a particular organization.
IMPACT OF PRIVATIZATION ON NON-PERFORMING LOANS OF CONVENTIONAL COMMERCIAL BANKS IN PAKISTAN
Danish Ijaz,Atta-ul-Haq,Muhammad Akram Naseem,Javed Iqbal
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Current study describes the effect of privatization on non-performing loans of conventional commercial banks in Pakistan to some extent. Process of privatization started from 1988 due to non-satisfactory performance of banks, as there was lack of lenders plans, weak credit operations, increased loans sizes and many other similar factors. Studies revealed the better performance of private banks as compared to government owned banks. Most important factor is about handling of non-performing loans which may be through early risk assessment, better law and order situations, regular monitoring and other similar factors. MCB, ABL, UBL and HBL banks were privatized in order to attain efficiencies and all of these banks showed significant improvement after the privatization. Values of non-performing loans is divided in to pre-privatization and post-privatization period and collected from Banking Surveillance Department (BSD) and from the official website of SBP. Graphical as well as analytical analysis is performed to judge the impact of privatization. Average values of non-performing loans showed a significant fall in the values of non-performing loans after the privatization. There are also some other forces for this improvement like the Banking Reforms. Due to these reforms the concept of corporate governance, risk assessment and loan portfolio management and some others were introduced. A very small proportion of people denied the importance of these reforms. A prominent improvement showed that privatization has reduced the values of non-performing loans.
Washability Characteristics of Low Volatile Pakistani Coking Coal by Crushing  [PDF]
Fahad Mir
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.25050
Abstract: Through washability study, a couple of parameters were investigated for a low volatile Pakistani Coal (coking). The aim was to find out the effect of the action of reducing material release characteristics for low volatile Pakistani coal. The “Index of washability” (IW) and “Near gravity material Index” (NGMI) were used as parameters to express the ease of washability. Run of Mine coal is crushed to four different sizes as mentioned 80 mm, 30 mm, 18 mm and 11 mm in a pestle and mortar. Calculations of IW show that it is inversely proportional to top size of feed, indicating that washability increases with the decrease of size. From NGMI calculations it was concluded that gravity method is not recommended for separation at this specific gravity range. So study divulges that the critical specific gravity for crushing to 30 mm is 1.67 and for 11 mm is 1.56.
OF TABOOS AND SACREDNESS: SOCIAL REALISM IN PAKISTANI SHORT STORY GENRE
Munawar Iqbal Ahmad,Muhammad Sheeraz
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: Literature is often conditioned by the socio-political conditions in a society. Consequently, in most cases, a bleak truth about society and history is exposed which is, sometimes, treated, owing to its apparent impropriety, as intolerable by many. This tradition of projecting social realism, in a fictionalized manner, about pre and post-independence Pakistan and Pakistani society has been kept intact, against all odds, by various short fiction writers – Ahmad Ali, Saadat Hassan Manto and Daniyal Mueenuddin being the most prominent of them. Ahmad Ali exposes, in many of his works, the social face of pre-independence Indian society, Manto X-rays, for most part, its post-independence body whereas Daniyal Mueenuddin gives a kind ofultrasonic analysis, predominantly, of its contemporary image, which, in many ways, is no different from pre-1947 era. The intended study assumes that Manto is the inheritor of the social realist tradition initiated by Ali, whereas Mueenuddin, in his short stories in Englsih, inherits it from Manto. They share the basic themes and thought but develop them according to the social milieu of their times and theirindividual idiosyncrasies. So, focusing on these three short fiction writers, the proposed study aims to explore tradition of social realism in indigenous short fiction.
Comparative Study on Tensile Properties of Imported and Pakistani Cotton Yarn
Nasir Mahmood,Nisar Ahmed Jamil,M. Iftikhar,Raheed Akram
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: It was planned to compare the spinning potentials of imported cottons viz. American cotton (Acala 1517-95), Uzbek cotton (C-6524), Australian cotton (Sicala-40), Brazilian cotton (Matta) and Zimbabwean cotton (Albar Sz-9314) with Pakistani cotton (MNH-93), in term of their utility values in textiles mills. American and Brazilian cottons generates the better results.
Challenges of implementing e-learning in a Pakistani university
Ijaz A. Qureshi,Khola Ilyas,Robina Yasmin,Michael Whitty
Knowledge Management & E-Learning : an International Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The integration of e-learning programs into the educational system has reshaped the process of acquisition and dissemination of knowledge throughout the society. Although numbers of researchers approve of the effectiveness of e-learning integration in terms of the innovation it offers to engage with students does not guarantee the success of e-learning programs. This can be observed in developing countries like Pakistan, which have not yet been able to benefit fully from the advantages of e-learning. Though the importance of this issue is theoretically highlighted in research, empirical evidence is scarce particularly regarding developing countries like Pakistan.Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the issues, related to e-learning through the feedback captured from students and provide strategies to successfully overcome the issues. In order to achieve this purpose, a number of issues prevailing in a Pakistani private university were identified through in depth literature review and discussion with the students. The findings demonstrated electricity failure and English proficiency as the most significant barriers to successful integration of e-learning. Lastly conclusion was drawn and suggestions were made on the basis of issues identified.
The Paradox of Religion: The (re)Construction of Hindu and Muslim Identities amongst South Asian Diasporas in the United States
Aminah Mohammad-Arif
South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal , 2007,
Abstract: In the process of (re)constructing their identities in an alien society, South Asians have tended to give to religion a significant importance. This salience of religion owes as much to the dislocation and the stigmatization engendered by the migration experience as to the local context, the United States, who, while promoting a policy of multiculturalism, sees religion as an ‘acceptable’ identity marker. Drawing on this process, this article examines the implications on the inter-ethnic relationships, in particular between Hindus and Muslims (both Indian and Pakistani), as two opposite and competing trends are underway: on the one hand, separate, if not confrontational, Hindu and Muslim identities are arising, while on the other hand, a South Asian identity, ignoring the borders of Partition, is shaping up.
Diversity, Distribution and Abundance of Zooplanktonic Larvae in Pakistani Waters
Farzana Yousuf,Kiran Wasee
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Zooplanktonic larvae are very important and at knowing the patterns of diversity, distribution and abundance on the coast of Pakistan offer a wide variety of zooplanktonic larvae. Thirty six species belonging to 7 major phyla, 3 minor phyla and 11 orders have been recorded conducted from September 2001 and December 2002. Two hundred and ninety three samples were collected from Sonmiani and Korangi Creek at sixteen stations in Pakistani waters. Oblique tows from 5 m above bottom to the surface were made for 10 min with 333 um mesh paired nets and for 1-3 min with a 110 μm mesh net. Temperature and salinity at the surface and near bottom were recorded at each station. The dominant zooplanktonic larvae groups reached their maximum abundance during summer June-August and also produced secondary peaks in fall October or winter December. A few species had numerical maxima in the spring (March and April). It is concluded from the results that the Pakistani waters Northern Arabian Sea sustains a high faunal range and a wide range of habital selection mainly depending upon their feeding habits and other behavior.
GENETIC RESOURCES AND DIVERSITY IN DAIRY BUFFALOES OF PAKISTAN
M. SAJJAD KHAN, NAZIR AHMAD1 AND MUQARRAB ALI KHAN2
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Buffalo is the main dairy animal in Pakistan. There are five known buffalo breeds in the country namely: Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundhi and Azi Kheli (or Azakhale). Population trend is available for Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds and is positive. Azi-Kheli breed was included in 2006 livestock census for the first time. General production system is low-input extensive system but high input intensive system prevails around most cities in the form of buffalo colonies for supplying fresh milk. Buffaloes are seasonal breeders. Vast diversity exits both at phenotypic and genetic level. Economic traits have a wide variation and genetic control is moderate for production traits but very low for reproduction traits. Inbreeding is inimical to genetic diversity and has been reported to deteriorate productivity. Efforts to improve productivity of the species are needed alongwith sustainable utilization of existing resources.
Molecular study of a consanguineous family with autosomal recessive mental retardation and speech disorder
Syed Farhan Ahmad,Abdul Hameed,Maryam Jehangir,Jabar Zaman Khan Khttak
Molecular Biology Research Communications , 2012,
Abstract: Mental retardation (MR) is one of the most frequently found major genetic disorders around the world, affecting 1-3% of the people in the general population. The recent advancement in molecular biology and cytogenetic study has made possible the identification of new genes for a variety of genetic disorders including autosomal recessive MR. Recessive genetic disorders are common in Pakistan due to the high rate of consanguinity. A central focus of the present study was to map and identify the disease causing gene in a mentally retarded consanguineous Pakistani family with speech disorder. The study comprises of 20 individuals including 10 patients. Genetic analysis of autosomal recessive MR and speech disorders was carried out for eight known fundamental loci sorted out on the basis of clinical features. These loci including 3p26.2, 3p21.3, 7q22, 8p22, 11p15, 14q11.2-q12, 19p13.12, and 22p13 were screened using polymorphic microsatellite markers. To identify the disease locus, genomic DNA from each individual was genotyped for homozygosity analysis. Microsatellite markers were amplified using PCR. The study provided valuable data to exclude linkage of the above mentioned loci. The absence of any linkage of the Pakistani family with autosomal recessive MR to the eight well known loci, confirms the genetic heterogeneity of MR. These results need to be verified and the candidate gene be found by a complete genome scan, which may help us in establishing the genotype-phenotype correlation of MR, improving genetic counseling, carrier screening, DNAbased prenatal diagnosis and the opportunity to develop appropriate animal models to test new forms of cell or gene therapies.
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