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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7337 matches for " alcohol-related problems "
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Problemas laborales en pacientes dependientes del alcohol: Evolución en un a?o de tratamiento
Gómez-Talegón,Ma Trinidad; álvarez González,F. Javier;
Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0465-546X2009000300003
Abstract: objetive: the aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence of work-related problems due to the consumption of alcohol in a sample of alcohol-dependent patients and their evolution over twelve months of treatment. method: a prospective study was carried out on a cohort of 93 patients diagnosed as alcohol-dependent according to dsm-iv criteria, who underwent treatment over a 12 month period. information concerning the following work-related problems due to the consumption of alcohol was obtained: absenteeism, warnings, sanctions, accidents at work, dismissals and unemployment, that occurred within three different time scales: the patient's lifetime, the 12 months prior to the start of the treatment and during the 12 months of the treatment. results: 57% had had work-related problems during their lifetime, 35.5% in the 12 months prior to starting treatment and 23,7% during the year of treatment. the most frequent problems during the year of treatment were absenteeism and unemployment. work-related problems decreased (p < 0.05) during the treatment with respect to the year prior to the start of the treatment. conclusion: this study indicates that work-related problems are frequent among alcohol-dependent patients, but that such problems decrease when the dependency is treated.
Receiving an Alcohol Enquiry from a Physician in Routine Health Care in Sweden: A Population-Based Study of Gender Differences and Predictors
Barbro Engdahl,Per Nilsen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8051296
Abstract: Research has shown that the provision of brief interventions in the health care system is effective for reducing hazardous drinking. Using a telephone-administered questionnaire, this study provides a population-based investigation on the extent to which physicians address patients’ alcohol habits in the Swedish health care system, whether there are gender differences in the extent to which patients receive questions about alcohol, and predictors for receiving such questions. Data were obtained from monthly telephone surveys with around 72,000 people in 2006–2009. Having received an alcohol enquiry was defined as having been asked about one’s drinking habits by a physician in any health care visit in the last 12 months. Fourteen percent of the total population had received an alcohol enquiry, but there were considerable gender differences: for hazardous drinkers, 13% of the women and 17% of the men had received an alcohol enquiry; among those with sensible alcohol consumption, 10% of women and 15% of men had received an alcohol enquiry. Patients were more likely to have received an alcohol enquiry if they had self-reported alcohol-related problems, were hazardous drinkers and/or daily smokers. Some of the alcohol enquiry predictors differed by gender; social class was an important predictor for women but not for men.
Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Geshi,Masayo,Hirokawa,Kumi,Taniguchi,Toshiyo,Fujii,Yasuhito
Acta Medica Okayama , 2007,
Abstract: We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38) or a control group (n=33). The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and a lecture by an ex-alcoholic. The control group received health education regarding smoking. The students. knowledge regarding alcohol, their drinking behavior, and problem drinking (CAGE) were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline and at a two-month follow-up. A repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) of those who completed the follow-up indicated the education sessions. significant intervention (group*time) effect on the scores related to knowledge of alcohol-related health problems (p=0.035), with a greater increase in the scores of the intervention group at the follow-up. No significant intervention eff ect was observed regarding drinking behavior or problem drinking as measured by CAGE (p>0.05). Alcohol-related education can be considered an effective way to increase awareness of alcohol-related health problems, but less effective for changing drinking the behavior of Japanese junior college students.
Problemas laborales en pacientes dependientes del alcohol: Evolución en un a o de tratamiento Work-related problems among alcohol-dependent patients: Development a year of alcohol treatment
Ma Trinidad Gómez-Talegón,F. Javier álvarez González
Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo , 2009,
Abstract: Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la prevalencia de problemas laborales debidos al consumo de alcohol en una muestra de dependientes del alcohol y su evolución durante un a o de tratamiento. Material y Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de una cohorte de 93 pacientes, que realizaron tratamiento durante un a o, diagnosticados de dependencia del alcohol según criterios DSM-IV. Se obtuvo información de los siguientes problemas laborales debidos al consumo de alcohol: absentismo, llamadas de atención, sanciones, accidentes laborales, despidos, desempleo o paro, ocurridos en tres momentos: durante toda la vida, el a o anterior al inicio del tratamiento y durante un a o de tratamiento. Resultados: El 57% tuvieron problemas laborales a lo largo de su vida, el 35,5% el a o anterior al inicio del tratamiento, y el 23,7% durante el a o de tratamiento. Los problemas mas frecuentes fueron el absentismo y el desempleo. Los problemas laborales disminuyeron (p<0,05) durante el a o de tratamiento respecto al a o anterior al inicio del tratamiento. Discusión: Este estudio indica que los problemas laborales son frecuentes entre los dependientes del alcohol, y que estos disminuyen con el tratamiento de la dependencia del alcohol. Objetive: The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence of work-related problems due to the consumption of alcohol in a sample of alcohol-dependent patients and their evolution over twelve months of treatment. Method: A prospective study was carried out on a cohort of 93 patients diagnosed as alcohol-dependent according to DSM-IV criteria, who underwent treatment over a 12 month period. Information concerning the following work-related problems due to the consumption of alcohol was obtained: absenteeism, warnings, sanctions, accidents at work, dismissals and unemployment, that occurred within three different time scales: the patient's lifetime, the 12 months prior to the start of the treatment and during the 12 months of the treatment. Results: 57% had had work-related problems during their lifetime, 35.5% in the 12 months prior to starting treatment and 23,7% during the year of treatment. The most frequent problems during the year of treatment were absenteeism and unemployment. Work-related problems decreased (p < 0.05) during the treatment with respect to the year prior to the start of the treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates that work-related problems are frequent among alcohol-dependent patients, but that such problems decrease when the dependency is treated.
Interpreting Null Findings from Trials of Alcohol Brief Interventions
Nick Heather
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00085
Abstract: The effectiveness of alcohol brief intervention (ABI) has been established by a succession of meta-analyses but, because the effects of ABI are small, null findings from randomized controlled trials are often reported and can sometimes lead to skepticism regarding the benefits of ABI in routine practice. This article first explains why null findings are likely to occur under null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) due to the phenomenon known as “the dance of the p-values.” A number of misconceptions about null findings are then described, using as an example the way in which the results of the primary care arm of a recent cluster-randomized trial of ABI in England (the SIPS project) have been misunderstood. These misinterpretations include the fallacy of “proving the null hypothesis” that lack of a significant difference between the means of sample groups can be taken as evidence of no difference between their population means, and the possible effects of this and related misunderstandings of the SIPS findings are examined. The mistaken inference that reductions in alcohol consumption seen in control groups from baseline to follow-up are evidence of real effects of control group procedures is then discussed and other possible reasons for such reductions, including regression to the mean, research participation effects, historical trends, and assessment reactivity, are described. From the standpoint of scientific progress, the chief problem about null findings under the conventional NHST approach is that it is not possible to distinguish “evidence of absence” from “absence of evidence.” By contrast, under a Bayesian approach, such a distinction is possible and it is explained how this approach could classify ABIs in particular settings or among particular populations as either truly ineffective or as of unknown effectiveness, thus accelerating progress in the field of ABI research.
Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults
Korczak, Dieter,Steinhauser, Gerlinde,Dietl, Markus
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven before they are launched. At present activities for the reduction or prevention of risky alcohol consumption are not sufficiently evaluated in Germany concerning their sustainable efficacy.
Impacto del trastorno por consumo de alcohol en la mortalidad: ?hay diferencias según la edad y el sexo?
Guitart,Anna M.; Espelt,Albert; Castellano,Yolanda; Bartroli,Montse; Villalbí,Joan R.; Domingo-Salvany,Antonia; Brugal,M. Teresa;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112011000500008
Abstract: objectives: to estimate excess mortality in patients with an alcohol use disorder and to calculate the population-based impact attributable to this disorder, with emphasis on differences according to gender and age. methods: we carried out a longitudinal study of a dynamic retrospective cohort in which 7,109 patients (76.5% men) aged 18-64 years who started medical day treatment between 1997 and 2006 were recruited. deaths were monitored until the end of 2006 using a national mortality register. standardized mortality ratios (smr) by age and gender and population attributable risks (par) by age group were estimated. results: there were 557 deaths (83% were men). the total excess mortality was 8 times higher than in the general population aged 18-64 years, especially in the group aged 25-34 years old (smr: 11.2 [95% ci: 7.8-16.0] in men and 24 [ic95%: 11.5-50.4] in women). significant differences by gender were found in all the variables analyzed. in barcelona, alcohol use disorder was estimated to cause 73 deaths per year, representing 3.3% of the total annual deaths in this city in persons aged 18-64 years. this percentage was substantially higher in the groups aged 25-34 years (par: 19.4% [95% ci: 19.2-19.6]) and 18-24 years (par: 11.1% [95% ci: 10.7-11.4]). conclusions: women and young men with an alcohol use disorder have a higher risk of early mortality. early detection of problematic alcohol consumption and selective and well-indicated prevention programs should be improved.
Priapism Following Trazodone Use in a Patient Using Drugs and Alcohol: A Case Study
Padder, Tanveer,Skodnek, Kenneth,Mayans, Judith,Castrellon, Ricardo
The Internet Journal of Mental Health , 2006,
Abstract: We present a case of priapism, an urological disorder and medical emergency with a variety of known etiologies, including the use of psychotropic medications. We report here on the first instance to our knowledge, a case of priapism, which occurred following trazodone use in a patient who was actively using alcohol, opiates and benzodiazepines. It is unclear if these drugs act in additive or synergistic manner to cause priapism. Since trazodone is frequently prescribed as a hypnotic in drug abusers, clinicians should be cautious regarding the risk of priapism in this population.
Perfil do consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e fatores associados em um município do Nordeste do Brasil
Ferreira, Luciano Nery;Sales, Zenilda Nogueira;Casotti, Cezar Augusto;Bispo Júnior, José Patrício;Braga Júnior, Ant?nio Carlos Ricardo;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2011000800003
Abstract: this cross-sectional study focused on alcohol consumption according to gender, age, income, and schooling in jequié, bahia state, brazil. the random sample consisted of 270 individuals over 14 years of age living in the urban area of jequié from january to march 2010. alcohol consumption was assessed using the alcohol use disorders identification test (audit). of the total sample, 21.8% consumed four or more drinks on a typical day, 14.1% admitted having caused any harm after drinking, and 26.3% reported that someone had already suggested they should stop drinking. forty percent of men had more than four drinks on a typical day, and 50.5% of young people drank frequently. distribution of the variables was consistent with higher frequency and greater amounts of alcohol among men and young people. there was a large proportion of heavy episodic alcohol consumption. the study identified vulnerable groups that are still not addicted to alcohol, and that should be targeted for public health promotion and prevention policies.
Alcoolismo: acusa??o ou diagnóstico?
Neves, Delma Pessanha;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000100002
Abstract: this article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.
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