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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2992 matches for " agricultural machinery "
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A Research of the Environmental and Social Effects of the Adoption of Biotechnological Practices for Soybean Cultivation in Argentina  [PDF]
Guido Fernando Botta, Alfredo Tolón-Becerra, Xavier Lastra-Bravo, Mario Cesar Tourn
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.23041
Abstract: In recent years, the excessive and unregulated implementation of biotechnological practices has placed a large number of farmers in a precarious position throughout our country. Here we review and we analyzed results produced in field experiments installed along the Argentinean Pampas to determine environmental and social effects of the adoption of biotechnology practices associated with direct sowing (DS) of soybean. The use of machinery for farm work, the perfection of handling techniques, the incorporation of improved seeds, and the use of fertilizers and pesticides together influenced a significant increase in the productivity of the land, manual labors and capital. Despite positive economic results of this agricultural renewal also brought about consequences that proved to be detrimental to producers. By the end of the 1980s numerous sectors were in states of crisis. The major findings of our research are: 1) exhaustion of resources; 2) erosion problems brought on by inappropriate land use and soil compaction by increased area under DS system; 3) loss of biodiversity in the ecosystem; 4) crisis among family-owned farms who cannot access to new improved technologies due to profitability, obsolete machinery and the impossibility of access to credit; 5) reduction in smaller farms; 6) increase in specialized production, which implies the subordination of farming production to the dynamic of capital and finally more direct relationships between the entities generating technology and primary productions. The results of our study on adoption of biotechnology practice associated to DS of soybean give the following results: 1) the deterioration of family income from farms reached 41% per hectare comparing the average values of the 1990s to the 1980s. Farms smaller than 190 hectares, therefore, ceased to be “competitive” in Buenos Aires State, it can be observed a reduction of 24.2% in the number of farms. This occurred due to a reduction of small and medium-scale farmers associated with the concentration of land into farming units of more than 500 hectares; 2) annual losses in rural work rise 17.043.000 $/year or US$ 4.260.750 or, from another point of view, 4.128 tractor drivers, 3.926 mechanics and 4.600 farm workers, with an overall 12.000 rural workers; 3) increase of subsoil compaction and soil erosion was found due to high axle load of machinery equipment which also caused a decrease in crop yields ranging between 9% and 38% of the total yield per hectare of soybean crop, affecting the producers.
Evaluación de estrés hídrico en plantas de fresa a raíz desnuda
Gutiérrez Vaca, César;Serwatowski Hlawinska, Ryszard;Cabrera Sixto, José Manuel;Flores García, álvaro;Salda?a Robles, Noé;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2010,
Abstract: this study determined the time available before irrigating, after planting bare-root strawberry plants in soil cushioned with moisture before rotting permanently, without risking the plant's life. this, in order to design a grafting device for bare-root plants that runs on dry cushioned soils.four irrigation treatments were analyzed; one was applied an hour before transplanting, another when transplanting, and 1 and 2 hours afterwards. the experiment was carried out in november 2007 in the town of "el copal", in the municipality of irapuato, guanajuato, mexico; the location's height is 1 720 masl; the soil is silty clay loam and the rotting point humidity is around 18%. the plastic used was white on the outside, black on the inside and 30 μm thick. irrigation was determined viable during transplanting and up to two hours later without endangering the plant, with a certainty of 95%. the conclusion was that it is possible to mechanically transplant bare-root strawberry plants on dry cushioned soil, which will allow the device to operate.
Compara??o econ?mica da produ??o de gr?os secos e silagem de gr?os úmidos de milho cultivado em sistema de plantio direto
Jasper, Samir Paulo;Seki, André Satoshi;Silva, Paulo Roberto Arbex;Biaggioni, Marco Ant?nio Martin;Benez, Sérgio Hugo;Costa, Ciniro;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542009000500027
Abstract: this work was carried out at fca-botucatu/unesp - s?o paulo state university, with the aim to evaluate the costs involved in high moisture corn silage production, using the corn drying process as witness, both cultivated in no-tillage system. the costs involved in the operations of agricultural machines, inputs and post harvest phase were obtained for evaluation. the results allowed concluding that the cost per hectare for high moisture corn silage (us$ 607.85) was 8.8% smaller than the costs for dried corn (us$ 666.86).
Proposta de um sistema de medi??o de desempenho aplicado à mecaniza??o agrícola
Peloia, Paulo R.;Milan, Marcos;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162010000400012
Abstract: the leaders' organizations of several different sectors have as characteristic to measure their own performance in a systematic way. however, this concept is still unusual in agricultural enterprises, including the mechanization sector. mechanization has an important role on the production costs and to know its performance is a key factor for the agricultural enterprise success. this work was generated by the importance that measurement of performance has for the management and the mechanization impact on the production costs. its aim is to propose an integrated performance measurement system to give support to agricultural management. the methodology was divided in two steps: adjustment of a conceptual model based on balanced score card bsc; application of the model in a study case at sugar cane mill. the adjustment and the application of the conceptual model allowed to obtain the performance index in a systematic way, that are associated to: costs and deadline (traditionally used); control and improvement on the quality of operations and support process; environmental preservation; safety; health; employees satisfaction; development of information systems. the adjusted model helped the development of the performance measurement system for the mechanized management systems and the index allows an integrated view of the enterprise, related to its strategic objectives.
ESTUDIO DE PARáMETROS OPERACIONALES DE DISCOS DOBLES Y CINCELES PARABóLICOS PARA PRáCTICAS CULTURALES EN áREAS CON RESIDUOS VEGETALES
Camacho,Jesús H.; Magalh?es,Paulo S. G.;
Agricultura Técnica , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072004000100007
Abstract: one of the main restrictive aspects of no-tillage is the handling of crop residues during amendment and fertilizer application, since when it is not carried out simultaneously with sowing, it is necessary to distribute these products on the surface to maintain the soil cover. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the operational capacity of a prototype designed with double disks, chisel tine and subsoiler, which allows fertilization at a depth between 0 and 0.30 m. the experimental design was randomized blocks, with seven treatments and four replicates. behavior of the horizontal and vertical forces, soil area disturbed, work depth and specific resistance were analyzed. the results indicated that the use of double disks in front of the chisels reduces the horizontal force and the disturbed area, but these results do not differ statistically. the treatments with chisels had higher values of horizontal force, higher disturbed areas and similar specific resistance. the combination of double disks and chisels reduced the vertical force. the maximum working depth was observed for the treatments with double disks and subsoiler. the double disks had smallest horizontal force, shallowest working depth, smallest disturbed area and the highest specific resistance.
Modelo matemático para la demanda de potencia de un aparato de corte de eje vertical para trituración de rastrojos
Pérez de Corcho Fuentes,Jorge Simón; Garbati Pegna,Francesco;
Ingeniería e Investigación , 2008,
Abstract: this work describes a mathematical model for determining the power demand for a vertical shaft mowing machine, particularly taking into account the influence of speed on cutting power, which is different from that of other models of mowers. the influence of the apparatus? rotation and translation speeds was simulated in determining power demand. the results showed that no changes in cutting power were produced by varying the knives? angular speed (if translation speed was constant), while cutting power became increased if translation speed was increased. variations in angular speed, however, influenced other parameters determining total power demand. determining this vertical shaft mower?s cutting pattern led to obtaining good crop stubble quality at the mower?s lower rotation speed, hence reducing total energy requirements.
由《农业机械学报》载文看我国农业机械的现状和研究方向
Current Situation and Research Directions for Agricultural Machinery from Publish Papers Analysis of Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery
 [PDF]

徐瑞清, 王宝济, 杨文丽, 胡桂兰
Hans Journal of Agricultural Sciences (HJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.12677/HJAS.2013.32009
Abstract: 本文通过对《农业机械学报》20121~9期载文进行分析,发现了我国农业机械的研究现状,对我国农机科研工作者的研究内容进行了分析。
In this paperthe authors discover the current research situation of Chinese agricultural machinery, and analyse the research content of Chinese agricultural machinery, base on the publish papers analysis of transactions of the Chinese society for agricultural machinery from No. 1-9 in2012.
Desempenho de um trator agrícola equipado com pneus radiais e diagonais com três níveis de lastros líquidos
Monteiro, Leonardo de A.;Lan?as, Kléber P.;Guerra, Saulo P. S.;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162011000300015
Abstract: the correct use of tires, as for its construction type as for internal pressure calibration and the optimal weighting for each load condition are factors that impact significantly on their performance. this study aimed to compare the performance of a tractor equipped with radial tires and bias ply tires in three conditions of liquid ballast (0%, 40% and 75% water), three surface conditions of a dystrophic red alfisol (firm surface, tillage surface and surface with corn residues coverage) and three theoretical traveling speeds (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 and 7 km h-1), as indicated at the tractor display, related to the gear boxes b1, b2 and c1. the best tractor's performance, equipped with bias ply tire happened at 75% water in the tires and it had provide a higher traveling speed, lower slippage, lower fuel consumption per hour and higher drawbar pull power. the radial tires with the best performance happened at 40% water in tires and it has provided a higher traveling speed, lower slippage, lower fuel consumption per hour, lower specific fuel consumption and higher drawbar pull power bar.
Fuel consumption of a tractor in function of wear, of ballasting and tire inflation pressure
Spagnolo, Roger T.;Volpato, Carlos E. S.;Barbosa, Jackson A.;Palma, Marcos A. Z.;Barros, Murilo M. de;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162012000100014
Abstract: when using appropriate inflation pressures and load capacity (ballast), it may obtain a higher yield and prolongation of the life of the tire, besides it may minimize the problems of loss of traction, increased slippage and fuel consumption. this study aimed to evaluate the fuel consumption of a tractor operating with new and worn tires in three conditions of ballasting and three inflation pressures, when driving on compacted soil with vegetation cover. the experiment was conducted at the experimental unit from the department of animal science, federal university of lavras, state of minas gerais, brazil, in an agricultural soil compacted by cattle trampling and with vegetation cover. it was used a tractor 4x2 with front wheel assist, of a 65.62 kw engine power. the tires were of r1 type, diagonal (front: 12.4 to 24; and rear: 18.4 to 30), the average height of the clutches of the new tires were 0.3 and 0.35 m for front and rear tires, respectively, and for the worn tires were 0.018 and 0.0045 m, for the front and the rear tires, respectively. the results showed advantages for the tractor equipped with new tires.
Uniformidade de picado processado por colhedora de forragem
Schlosser, José F;Dornelles, Mar?al E;Pinheiro, Eder D;Durigon, Reges;Russini, Alexandre;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162010000200012
Abstract: the process of plants ensilage is a common practice in brazil which provides the housing of animal feeds with high level of energy through plants to use in periods of shortage. to obtain silage with good quality it is needed a uniformity during the harvesting of plants by forage harvesters. therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the uniformity of pricked corn and sorghum harvested by forage harvester, by assessing the methodology proposed to determine the sizes of the plant particles and to define the best adjustment for using the harvester. it was evaluated two adjustments for size cutting, 4 and 22 mm, on corn and sorghum harvesting. the adjustment of 4 mm showed a larger uniformity of pricked than the adjustment of 22 mm, medium values of 63.2% and 44.6%, respectively, in the recommended range. thereby, the adjustment to 4 mm should be used to corn and sorghum ensilage with the evaluated harvester. the method used for determining the pricked uniformity allowed the evaluation with fastness, efficiency and simplicity.
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