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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2339 matches for " aerobic and anaerobic capacities "
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BODY BUILD AND BODY COMPOSITION VS. PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN YOUNG JUDO CONTESTANTS COMPARED TO UNTRAINED SUBJECTS
S. Sterkowicz,G. Lech,T. Pa?ka,A. Tyka
Biology of Sport , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to (1) find differences in body build and aerobic and anaerobic capacity between young judoists and untrained peers; (2) compare correlations for indicators of body build with indicators of aerobic and anaerobic capacity among the group of trained and untrained subjects. The study group comprised 18 subjects selected during a competitive period, who had taken at least fifth place in national judo tournaments. Their training experience ranged from 6 to 11 years, 8 to 10 hours a week. The control group was composed of 18 untrained students from one of the schools included in the study. Their body height and mass (BM) did not differ compared to judoists. A body composition chart was employed for analysis of body build and body composition. Physiological investigations encompassed measurements of anaerobic (Wingate test) and aerobic (graded exercise test on cycle ergometer) capacity. Judo contestants are typically characterized by higher BMI, fat-free mass and fat-free mass index compared to the untrained. Compared to the group of untrained peers, young athletes in this sport are distinguished by the time needed to generate peak power. This difference is not observed in the indices characterising aerobic capacity. The level of the indices of body build and composition in young judo contestants shows a moderate and strong correlation with indices of anaerobic and aerobic capacity. The amount of total work in the Wingate test was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.65, p<0.01), fat-free mass index (r=0.63, p<0.01), body mass (r=0.49, p<0.05), fat mass index (r=0.49, p<0.05) and percentage of fat (r=0.48, p<0.05). Maximal peak anaerobic power was positively correlated with fat-free mass index (r=0.48, p<0.05) and percentage of fat (r=0.50, p<0.05). A strong negative correlation between ·VO2max with body mass (r=-0.75, p<0.001), BMI (r=-0.72, p<0.001), moderate correlation with PF%(r=-0.64, p<0.01), fat-free mass index (r=-0.52, p<0.05), and fat mass index (-0.67, p<0.01) were observed. Heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (%max) showed positive relationships with fat-free mass index (r=0.52, p<0.05). In the untrained subjects, only a negative relationship between BM and TOPP was observed (r=-0.48, p<0.05). These findings confirm interrelations between structural and functional parameters, developed through many years of training. Although physical capacity might affect the course of a fight, it should be considered....
Racial variation of aerobic and anaerobic performances in sedentary men  [PDF]
Salma Abedelmalek, Hamdi Chtourou, Asma Aloui, Zouhair Tabka, Nizar Souissi
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22023
Abstract: The present study was designed to compare the effect of racial variations on short- and incremental maximal exercises in sedentary men whites (WT) and blacks (BT) Tunisian and South African (SA). In a randomized order, thirty-six physically sedentary men including 12 BT, 12 WT, and 12 SA were asked to perform a force-velocity (i.e., determination of maximal power (Pmax), F0, and V0) and a treadmill maximal aerobic (i.e., determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) tests. Pmax and F0 were significantly higher in SA than WT (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). However, no significant difference was observed between WT and BT and between SA and BT. Likewise, racial variations didn’t affect the V 0 values. Moreover, VO2 max was significantly higher in SA and BT than WT (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between SA and BT. Compared to white subjects, the present study’ results suggest the superiority of blacks races on aerobic and anaerobic exercises in physically sedentary men.
Elimination of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Domestic Wastewater through a Series of Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors for a Developing Country like Benin  [PDF]
Senandemi E. R. Mahunon, Akuemaho V. O. Akowanou, Martin P. Aina, Benjamin K. Yao, Dominique K. C. Sohounhloué
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.67056
Abstract: Waste water treatment in order to preserve water resources is one of the major concerns in developing countries. This study aims to test the operating effectiveness of a pilot designed on a basis of several laboratory experiments, which consists of an anaerobic and aerobic pond in series. The test was performed through monitoring global parameters of pollution. The results of the analysis of these parameters indicate an elimination of 91% of suspended solids, 68% of COD, 77% of BOD5, 61% of nitrate and 81% of phosphorus. It was also noticed that the anaerobic pond removes most, carbonaceous organic materials and especially suspended matters; and the aerobic pond most, nitrogen and especially phosphorus. This study reveals the effectiveness of the series connection of an anaerobic and aerobic pond for domestic wastewater treatment.
Biological Nitrogen and COD Removal of Nutrient-Rich Wastewater Using Aerobic and Anaerobic Reactors  [PDF]
Florante A. MAGNAYE, Pag-asa D. GASPILLO, Joseph L. AURESENIA
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.15045
Abstract: A preliminary study on nitrogen and organic removal efficiency of a lab-scale system using aerobic and an-aerobic reactors was performed. A simulated wastewater containing elevated levels of nitrogen was used. This paper aims to compare the efficiency of aerobic and anaerobic reactors in achieving nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of nutrient-rich wastewater. It also presents the start-up experi-mentation conducted on simulated wastewater using two different reactors configured as aerobic and anaero-bic. Start-up experiments were carried out using a 5-liter acrylic aerobic reactor and a 4-liter flask anaerobic reactor containing activated sludge taken from De La Salle University (DLSU) wastewater treatment plant as a source of inoculum. Simulated wastewater was continuously fed to the two reactors and the time course of biomass growth was monitored by measuring the biomass concentration represented by mixed liquor volatile solids (MLVS). The time course of organic pollutant reduction by measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was conducted until steady state condition was reached. On the other hand, COD and nitrogen tests such as Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), Nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), Nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) were also per-formed using 5 batch aerobic reactors containing different concentrations of wastewater and a single batch anaerobic reactor to see the effect of different feed concentrations in the removal of nitrogen. Preliminary results showed that 98% reduction in COD was obtained in aerobic reactor, as supported by increasing con-centration of MLVS, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 hours after 11 days while 34% reduction in COD was obtained in anaerobic reactor with the same HRT after 14 days.
13C/12C Isotope Fractionation during Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Naphthalene  [PDF]
Luis E. Lesser-Carrillo
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.52022
Abstract:

Microcosm experiments were conducted to determine the fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during biodegradation of naphthalene. The microcosms were performed under aerobic conditions, anaerobic (amended with sulfate, amended with nitrate and with no amendments) and sterile controls. The liquid phase was analyzed to determine naphthalene concentration and stable carbon isotope signature. Aerobic microcosm showed that naphthalene degraded aerobically within 60 hours. The δ13C increased from -25.5‰ to -25.1‰ (enrichment of 0.4‰ ± 0.08‰) in a single sample in which 95% of the naphthalene was biodegraded. Anaerobic microcosms show that after 288 days, the microcosms with no amendments, amended with nitrate and amended with sulfate had consumed respectively 30%, 50% and 60% of naphthalene on average, compared to control microcosms. Under the denitrifying conditions, the δ13C of naphthalene increased from -25.2‰ to -23.9‰ (enrichment of 1.3‰ ± 0.3‰) after a 95% of naphthalene biodegradation. For the unamended microcosms, a slight enrichment on δ13C napththalene was detected, from -25.2‰ to -24.5‰ (enrichment of 0.7‰ ± 0.3‰) after a biodegradation of approximately 65% of naphthalene (after 288 days). For sulfate reducing microcosms, no significant changes were detected on the δ13C during naphthalene biodegradation.

Salt tolerant culturable microbes accessible in the soil of the Sundarban Mangrove forest, India  [PDF]
Subhajit Das, Minati De, Raghab Ray, Dipnarayan Ganguly, Tapan kumar Jana, Tarun Kumar De
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2011.12004
Abstract: Sundarban Mangrove forest is highly productive marine ecosystem where halophilic microbes actively participate in bio-mineralization and biotransformation of minerals. The population of aerobic halophilic microbes was studied to determine their distribution with the availability of different physicochemical parameters with increasing depth of this forest sediment. The present study revealed that microbes present in the top soil region were less tolerant to fluctuation in salinity than the middle and bottom segment. Microbes isolated from bottom segment showed higher growth rate in anaerobic condition. A decreasing trend of total microbial population and organic carbon content of soil were found with increase in depth. In contrary a reverse profile was found for salinity. A significant stratification was found to exist among microbial population and the salty nature of the soil of Sundarban Mangrove forest.
Natural killer cells responsiveness to physical exercise: A brief review  [PDF]
Antonio Crisafulli, Filippo Tocco, Franco Melis, Raffaele Milia, Alberto Concu
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2013.34024
Abstract: Natural killer cells (NK) are a group of peripheral blood lymphocytes which display cytotoxic activity against a wide range of tumour cells. They are a consistent part of the inflammatory response that is activated when either internal or external injuries occur as they are able to synthesize perforins. An important role is played by NK cells in the host defence against tumours without expressing any antigen-binding recaptor in their membrane which, however, distinguish T and B lymphocytes. NK activity appears early in the immune response, thus providing immediate protection during the time required for the activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and for their differentiation into functional cells. Even though much research regarding the effects of aerobic training exercise on NK cell numbers and function, there appears to be much controversy regarding its effect. NK cells are rapidly mobilized into circulation in response to acute exercise, most likely by increased shear stress and catecholamine-induced down-regulation of adhesion molecule expression. However, tissue injury and inflammation which often accompanies strenuous exercise have been associated to post-exercise NK cell suppression. Scientific evidence indicates exercise-induced changes in NK cell redistribution and function should be strongly influenced by stress hormones including catecholamines, cortisol and prolactin as well as by soluble mediators such as cytokines and prostaglandins. The role of exercise therapy in cancer patients and survivors rehabilitation is becoming increasingly important as it is thought to modulate immunity and inflammation. However, more knowledge about the effects of exercise on immune function in these patients is needed.
Determina??es e rela??es dos parametros anaeróbios do RAST, do limiar anaeróbio e da resposta lactacidemica obtida no início, no intervalo e ao final de uma partida oficial de handebol
Roseguini, Alex Zelanti;Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da;Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre;
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-86922008000100009
Abstract: the main purpose of the present study was to determine the anaerobic parameters obtained by the rast (running-based anaerobic sprint test) and the anaerobic threshold of twelve handballers affiliated with the handball federation of s?o paulo. moreover, we aimed to study the relationship of the rast variables, the anaerobic threshold and the lactacidemia response obtained at the beginning, at the interval and at the end of a an official handball match. measurements were carried out in two days. on the first day, the athletes performed the rast and then, the anaerobic threshold was obtained by a protocol adapted from tegtbur et al. (1993). on the second day, the athletes had blood samples collected to determine the blood lactate responses during the three different times of the handball game. repeated measurements anova test followed by post hoc newman-keuls test whenever needed, were used to compare the blood lactate concentrations during the handball match as well as that one corresponding to the anaerobic threshold. pearson product-moment coefficient analysis was used to verify the relationships of the rast variables, the anaerobic threshold and the blood lactate obtained at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of an official handball match. a significance level of 5% was chosen for all cases. correlations between the rast parameters and the anaerobic threshold with the blood lactate responses during the handball match have not been observed. according to our results, it is possible to conclude that the variables obtained by the protocol proposed to determine the anaerobic threshold did not present significant correlations with the blood lactate concentrations obtained during the official handball match.
Consumo máximo de oxigênio e limiar anaeróbio de jogadores de futebol: compara??o entre as diferentes posi??es
Balikian, Pedro;Louren??o, Aparecido;Ribeiro, Luiz Fernando Paulino;Festuccia, Wilham Tadeu Lara;Neiva, Cassiano Merussi;
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-86922002000200002
Abstract: the development of physical capacities in soccer determines the player's level of performance. the aim of this study was to compare anaerobic threshold and maximal oxygen uptake values between professional soccer players playing in different positions. twenty-five male athletes (age = 22.08 ± 8.82 years, weight = 76.12 ± 9.8 kg, height = 179.8 ± 7.1 cm and body composition = 12.21 ± 3.67% body fat) were divided into five groups as follows: goalkeepers (go), full backs (fb), sideways (sw), midfield (mf) and forwards (fo) and evaluated twice in two to three days period. for direct maximal oxygen uptake (vo2max) determination, subjects were submitted to an incremental continuous treadmill exercise until fatigue occurred. two-speeds track test (2 x 1,000 m at 90 and 95% of maximal speed) and linear interpolation were employed for 4mm blood lactate running speed (v4mm) or anaerobic threshold assessment. main results are present below. v4mm for go group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those found for any other group. in addition, sw and mf presented v4mm values which were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than those for fb and fo. vo2max for go was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those for other groups, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from one another. since these athletes were under the same training program, the differences above may be explained by different metabolic solicitation (position specificity) during official and training games.
Efeito da atividade física associada à orienta??o alimentar em adolescentes obesos: compara??o entre o exercício aeróbio e anaeróbio
Sabia, Renata Viccari;Santos, José Ernesto dos;Ribeiro, Rosane Pilot Pessa;
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-86922004000500002
Abstract: being a public health problem in modern society, obesity during adolescence is an increasingly universal disease that is turning into an epidemic. this study aimed to compare the effect of continuous aerobic and intermittent anaerobic physical exercise associated with nutritional orientation on weight reduction, body composition, biochemical measures and physical capacity of obese adolescents. 28 adolescents were investigated between 12 and 15 years old, and whose body mass index (bmi) is higher than 95 percent for age and gender. the volunteers were randomly distributed in two groups: walking continuous exercise (gec; n = 13) and running intermittent exercise (gei; n = 15) and were subject to a physical training program three times per week during 16 weeks, with duration from 20 to 40 minutes. nutritional orientation occurred once per week, in 60-minute group sessions, throughout the entire experiment. in the initial and final periods, weight and height were measured so as to calculate the bmi, as well as subcutaneous fold, arm (ac) and arm muscle circumference (amc), body composition by means of electric bioimpedance, biochemical serum analyses (glycemia and lipids), apart from the direct determination of maximum oxygen consumption (vo2max) and anaerobic threshold (lan) with a view to interpreting the physiological responses determined by aerobic and anaerobic training. in the two groups (gec, gei), anthropometric findings were decreased significant bmi and subcutaneous folds. in biochemical evaluation, a significant decrease occurred in gec with respect to hdl, ldl and total cholesterol serum levels, although still within normal values. values to hdl and triglicerids significant decrease in gei vo2max values increased significant in both groups. we concluded that the physical activity proposed for both gec and gei was sufficient and satisfactory, promoting weight decrease, better body composition and lipid levels, as well as an increase in the adolescent's aerobi
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