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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3256 matches for " adult cockerels. "
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Valores energéticos e aminoácidos digestíveis da semente do capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp) para aves
Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Dutra Júnior, Wilson Moreira;Rostagno, Horacio Santiago;Rodrigues, Kênia Ferreira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982004000500011
Abstract: three assays were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of the barnyardgrass seeds (echnochloa spp.) for poultry. in the first assay, twelve adult cockerels were used to determine the true metabolizable energy value corrected by nitrogen retained (tmen), using the forced fed method. in this assay six cockerels were forced fed 30 g of the feed and six cockerels were fastened to determinate metabolic and endogenous losses. in the second assay, twelve cecectomized cockerels were used to determine the true digestibility coefficients of the amino acids in the tested feed, using the same metodology. to determinate the apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen retained (amen) in the thirth assay, the total excreta collection method was used, with 80 growing chicks of commercial strain. the barnyardgrass seed was included in the proportion of 25 percent of the reference diet, which contained 20% cp and 3000 kcal of the me/kg. the reference and test diets were fed to four replicates of ten birds each. the energy values determined were 1813 kcal amen and 1976 kcal of the tmen/kg as fed. the true digestibility coefficients of the essential and non essential amino acids were, in average, 78.2 % and 78.3 %, respectively. the threonine and the lysine shown lower digestibility (65.8 and 67.2%, respectively) and the phenilalanine (86.4%) follow by the methionine (86.0%) presented higher values among essential amino acids. the tyrosine (90.5%) and cystine (56.3%) presented higher and lower digestibility coefficients, respectively, among the non essential amino acids.
Influência do tempo de coleta e metodologias sobre a digestibilidade e o valor energético de ra??es para aves
Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Martinez, Ricardo de Souza;Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de;Bertechini, Ant?nio Gilberto;Fialho, Elias Tadeu;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982005000300021
Abstract: a digestibility assay were carried out to evaluate, in consecutives periods, the total excreta collection method and the chromium oxide method as a marker. apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen retention (amen) and aparent digestibility of dry matter coefficient (addmc) of broiler diet based in a ground corn and soybean meal containing 19% crude protein and 3.100 kcal me/kg. sixty adult leghorn cockerels weigh, in average, 2.350±105 g were used. each cockerel participates in the evaluation of the two methods simutannialy in consecutives periods. a split plots experimental design experiment was used to evaluate the two métodhs. in the chromium oxid method the treatments were defined as a 4x5 factorial arrangemente (chromium oxide levels 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% and collection time 1 to 5 days), totalizing 20 treatments in the plot, in two continuous periods (sub-plots), with three replicates by period. in the total excreta collection method the treatments were defined as five collection times (1 to 5 days) in the plot and the two continuous periods in the subplot with twelve replicates per period. the use of continuous periods did not affect amen or addmc. in the total excreta collection method the values of amen and addmc reached a plateau after two days of collection, showing that the collection time could be reduced by three days without affecting the determinated values. the data showed interaction between chromium oxide levels with collection times for the amen and addmc. three days of excreta collection were enough to determine with accuracy both amen and addmc of the diets based on ground corn and soybean meal. the use of three days of collection and 0.665% of chromium oxide in the diet was possible to determine similar values for amen and addmc in the two methods.
Comparison of slow freezing and vitrification methods for Venda cockerel’s spermatozoa  [PDF]
Masindi L. Mphaphathi, Dibungi Luseba, Ben Sutherland, Tshimangadzo L. Nedambale
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.23028
Abstract: An improvement in avian semen cryopreservation is essential and has the potential to improve the cryo-gene banking efficiency. This study compared two cryopreservation methods (slow freezing and vitrification) and the effect of different thawing/warming temperatures (5℃, 25℃ and 41℃) on Venda cockerel’s spermatozoa. Semen samples from Venda cockerels were diluted with modified Kobidil+ extender supplemented with 8% dimethyl sulfoxide. Semen from each ejaculate was stained with nigrosin/eosin for viability examination. The cryopreserved samples were either slow cooled in 0.25 mL straw or vitrified in a solid surface vitrification (SSV) device. Semen straw or cryovial was stored in liquid nitrogen container. The straw or cryovial with sperm was thawed or warmed at 5?C, 25?C and 41℃ and analysed by a Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA). There was a significant difference in live/normal sperm between the semen donors. Cockerels spermatozoa cryopreserved by slow freezing (43%) and thawed at 5?C had a significantly higher survival and motility rate compared to vitrification (2.5%) method. In conclusion, there was higher rate of live/normal morphology sperm. Cryopreservation process reduces sperm motility and velocity rate regardless of cryoprevervation method and thawing or warming temperatures. However, slow freezing was a better method to maintain motility of spermatozoa following cryopreservation.
Effect of Graded Level of Alphamune G on Performance, Blood Chemistry and Histology of Cockerel Chicks
S.A. Bolu,V. Ojo,O. Oluyemi,O.I. Babawale
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the response of day-old cockerel chicks to graded levels of Alphamune G (0.00, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06%). The experiment which was conducted for 8 weeks employed a completely randomized design. Feed intake and nutrient retention were not significantly influenced (p>0.05) by dietary inclusion levels of Alphamune G. However, weight gain and feed to gain ratio were significantly improved (p<0.05) for cockerel chicks fed 0.06% inclusion level when compared with the control. The values were 7.78 and 4.58 g/bird/week, respectively. Haematology and serum indices did not show any significant effect as a result of the graded levels of dietary Alphamune G. Histological characteristics revealed slight morphological changes in specific organs of birds fed Alphamune G supplemented diet vis-a viz the control diet. Inclusion of Alphamune G at 0.06% in the diets of cockerel chicks gave the best performance.
Evaluation of Palm Kernel Meal as Substitute for Soyabean Meal in the Diet of Growing Cockerels
G.S. Ojewola,U.K. Ozuo
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: One hundred and twenty Anak Cockerels were used in a 56-day trial to determine the substitutional value of Palm Kernel meal (PKM) for Soyabean meal in the diet of growing cockerels. The five week-old cockerels were randomly allotted to five dietary treatment groups in which the dietary soyabean meal had been substituted with PKM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The diets were respectively designated as diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. The results showed that mean daily body weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio for all the treatments were significantly (P< 0.05) influenced. Birds fed diet 2 had the highest weight gain (1229.17g) followed by birds fed diet 1 (control) while birds fed diets 3, 4 and 5 respectively had their weights depressed. Birds fed diet 2 gave the best feed-to-gain ratio (3.88). The feed cost per kilogramme diet significantly (P< 0.05) decreased with the increasing PKM replacement of soyabean meal. Diet 2 gave the least cost per kg weight gain (N159.90) and the highest accruable revenue (N614.58). From the results of this study, it would appear that substituting 25% of soyabean meal with PKM in growing cockerel diets would not only be economically advantageous but enhanced performance.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2009,
Abstract: In a 2 × 3 factorial design, two hundred and seven 3 weeks old black (Bovan Nera) and white (Gold line) cockerels were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. The basal diet was based on maize, soybean meal, groundnut cake and wheat offal. Probiotics replaced the wheat offal in Diets I, II and III in proportion of 0, 0.05 and 0.1%. Probiotics contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Saccharomyces boulardii. Each diet was offered to 3 pens of 12 black cockerels each or 3 pens of 11 white cockerels each. Starting chicken of both strains responded non-significantly to increasing probiotics concentration in feed intake, body weight gain, and feed/gain ratio. A nonsignificant interaction occurred between strain and dietary probiotics concentration for all response criteria. The slope of regression of body weight changes depending on age was higher for white than black.
Safety Evaluation of Prolonged Administration of Stresroak in Grower Cockerels
A.A. Oyagbemi,A.B. Saba,R.O.A. Arowolo
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: Stresroak is a herbal preparation from combination of Phyllatus emblica, Ocimum sanctum, Withania, somnifera, Mangefira indica and Shilajit species. The Ayurvedic drug is used as anti-stress, immunomodulator, adaptogen and performance enhancer in poultry management. with outstanding results. The toxicological effects of prolonged administration of Stresroak in grower Cockerels was evaluated using haematological parameters and serum biochemical assay. Sixty growing Cockerels were used in this study. The birds were randomly but equally divided into 5 groups. Birds in groups A, B, C and D were administered with 109.8mg 292.8mg, 585.6mg and 951.6mg of the drug dissolved in 2 litres of distilled water, daily for 60 days respectively. While the dose of group A was recommended by the drug manufacturer, the birds in group E were administered with 0.9% Physiological saline. The haematological parameters analyzed were total red blood cell (RBC) count, total white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb), platelets count and heterophil/lymphocytes ratio. Plasma enzymes and proteins analyzed were total proteins (T.P), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO), fibrinogen (FIB), total bilirubin (T.Bil), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT). Stresroak generally improved haematological parameters in chicken administered with the drug when compared with the chicken in the control group. The significant (P< 0.05) increase in total RBC and WBC counts and MCH both at 30 and 60 days post-administration especially for the therapeutic dose, show that Stresroak probably enhances erythropoiesis. Lower heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was observed for the groups that received the highest doses of Stresroak and this was consistent throughout the course of the experiment, which implies that the herbal preparation improved the immunity of the chicken. The plasma levels of total protein, globulin, albumin and fibrinogen increased dose-dependently both at 30 and 60 days post- Stresroak administration. The plasma levels of ALP and AST were significantly lowered while non-significant changes were observed for plasma levels of ALT and GGT at 30 days post- Stresroak administration. Conversely, by 60 days post- Stresroak administration, the plasma levels of ALT and GGT were significantly (P< 0.05) elevated except in cockerels in group A that received the recommended therapeutic dosage; where the plasma levels was observed to be lower for ALP (P< 0.05) and AST (P>0.05). Histopathological finding
Effects of Central Histamine Receptors Blockade on GABAA Agonist-Induced Food Intake in Broiler Cockerels
Zendehdel Morteza,Babapour Vahhab,Jonaidi Hossein
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of H1, H2 and H3 antagonists on feed intake induced by GABAA agonist was evaluated. In Experiment 1, the animals received chloropheniramine, a H1 antagonist and then muscimol, a GABAA agonist. In Experiment 2, chickens received famotidine, a H2 receptor antagonist, prior to injection of muscimol. Finally in Experiment 3, the birds were injected with thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist and muscimol. Cumulative food intake was measured 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after injections. The results of this study indicated that effects of muscimol on food intake inhibited by pretreatment with chloropheneramine maleate (p<=0.05), significantly, while the famotidine and thioperamide were ineffective. These results suggest the existence of H1-receptor mediated histamine-GABAA receptor interaction on food intake in broiler cockerels
Effects of Aloe vera as Leaf Protein Concentrate on Growth Performance of Cockerels
B.I. Odo,B.U. Ekenyem,A.C. Nwamo
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: The study investigated the effects of Aloe vera as leaf protein concentrate for cockerels. It was conducted with 72 - day old cockerels which at 3 weeks of age were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments of 24 birds each with 3 replicates per treatment. The rations were standard commercial feed 0% (T1), 5% (T2) and 10% (T3) inclusion levels of Aloe vera respectively. The design of the experiment was a completely randomized design and the birds were fed for 42 days with their respective experimental diets. Records were kept on feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality trend to the end of the experiment. Results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion ratio within treatment but no significant difference (p>0.05) on feed intake. Highest overall profit was obtained from the T2 group. The inclusion of Aloe vera at 5% level supports feed absorption and growth in cockerels. This can therefore be used as a good leaf protein concentrate in cockerel nutrition for improved productivity and therefore, profitability.
Effect of Crude Oil Polluted Water on the Organs of Cockerel Reared under Intensive System
P.O. Akporhuarho
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: Data from sixty day old Harco cockerel were used to determine the effect of Crude oil contaminated water on the internal organs of cockerel. There were four treatment groups with fifteen replicates each. Treatment one (T1) which received crude oil free water served as control. Treatment 2, 3 and 4 received crude oil contaminated water at the rate of 5 ml, 10 ml and 15 ml respectively. Both feed and water were provided ad libitum. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment two birds were picked randomly from each compartment and slaughtered for post mortem examination, from the result gizzard, heart, liver and spleen, were significantly (p<0.05) depressive as a result of the toxic effect of crude oil, while the intestine and testis were not significantly (p<0.05) affected. This could be as a result of the bodys ability to build up resistance against the toxic effect of crude oil.
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