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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4762 matches for " ad hominem direct "
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L’argument ad hominem dans les débats présidentiels Bush/Kerry Ad hominem Argument in the Bush/Kerry Presidential Debates
Michael Leff
Argumentation et Analyse du Discours , 2011,
Abstract: Croyez-vous que vous pourriez faire mieux que le Président Bush pour éviter une nouvelle attaque du 11 septembre sur les Etats-Unis ? C’est par cette question, adressée au sénateur Kerry, que le journaliste animateur Jim Lehrer ouvrit les débats présidentiels de 2004. La sécurité étant devenue, depuis le 11 septembre, une préoccupation de premier plan dans le discours politique américain, la référence à ce thème pourrait sembler normale et quelconque. Cependant, la formulation même de la ...
Perelman, argument ad hominem et ethos rhétorique Perelman, ad Hominem Argument, and Rhetorical Ethos
Michael Leff
Argumentation et Analyse du Discours , 2009,
Abstract: La conception de Perelman sur le r le des personnes dans l’argumentation est l’une des marques les plus caractéristiques de sa rupture avec les hypothèses cartésiennes sur le raisonnement. Alors que le paradigme rationaliste cherchait à minimiser ou à éliminer les considérations personnelles comme étant dilatoires et non pertinentes dans ce cadre, Perelman insiste sur le fait que l’argumentation met inévitablement l’accent sur les personnes spécifiques impliquées dans l’argumentation et que la relation entre le locuteur et ce qui est dit est toujours pertinente et importante. En adoptant cette position, Perelman ressuscite implicitement la conception classique de la preuve par le caractère (argument par l’ethos ou ethotique ). Mais, bien que la Nouvelle Rhétorique consacre une large place au débat sur l’acte et la personne dans l’argumentation, elle n’accorde pas beaucoup de réflexion au concept classique et mélange différentes approches à l’intérieur de la tradition. Le résultat est que Perelman traite le r le du locuteur dans l’argumentation uniquement en référence à des techniques abstraites et ne prend pas en compte l’importance de l’examen des cas particuliers pour éclairer la compréhension du fonctionnement de l’argument ethotique en situation dans le contexte complexe de son utilisation effective. Par conséquent, la prise en compte par Perelman du r le de la personne dans l’argumentation doit être complétée par la référence à des études de cas et c’est dans ce but que j’étudie l’argument ethotique dans le célèbre essai de W. E. B. DuBois Sur M. Booker T. Washington et autres . Perelman’s view of the role of persons in argument is one of the most distinctive features of his break with Cartesian assumptions about reasoning. Whereas the Rationalist paradigm sought to minimize or eliminate personal considerations by dismissing them as distracting and irrelevant, Perelman insists that argumentation inevitably does and ought to place stress on the specific persons engaged in an argument and that the relationship between speaker and what is spoken is always relevant and important. In taking this position, Perelman implicitly revives the classical conception of proof by character (ethos or “ethotic” argument), but despite an extended discussion of act and person in argument, The New Rhetoric does not give much consideration to the classical concept and confuses differing approaches to it within the tradition. The result is that Perelman treats the role of the speaker in argument only by reference to abstract techniques and does not recognize the im
Transcender les différends : une réaction possible aux situations de désaccord profond The Appeal for Transcendence: A Possible Response to Cases of Deep Disagreement
David Zarefsky
Argumentation et Analyse du Discours , 2012,
Abstract: Le désaccord profond est une situation dans laquelle le conflit est tellement fondamental qu’il ne semble exister à aucun niveau d’accord sous-jacent partagé. Il est généralement admis qu’aucun débat productif n'est possible dans de pareils cas. Tout argument avancé par l’une des parties pourra être contesté par l’autre dans un processus de régression potentiellement infini, car à aucun moment les interlocuteurs ne sont obligés d’accepter un quelconque point de vue en vertu de leurs prises de positions antérieures. Surmonter un désaccord profond exige de dépasser l’impasse sur laquelle achoppe le débat, en envisageant la controverse sous un jour différent. Cet article identifie quatre couples de stratégies rhétoriques permettant de réaménager le désaccord et de transformer le débat. Il présente également deux études de cas pour illustrer ces stratégies : dans l’une, on parvient à dépasser le désaccord, alors que l’autre se solde par un échec. Deep disagreement is a situation in which a conflict is so fundamental that there appears to be no underlying shared agreement by the arguers at any level. It is generally held that in such a case productive argument is not possible. Any claim the one party makes can be challenged by the other party in a potentially infinite regress, because there is no moment at which the interlocutor, by virtue of his or her prior commitments, is obligated to accept any standpoint. Overcoming deep disagreement requires transcending the impasse in the argument, seeing the controversy in a different light. This essay identifies four pairs of strategies that involve rhetorical moves to reset the disagreement and reshape the argument. In addition, two case studies are presented to illustrate these strategies, one a case of successful transcendence and the other a case of failure.
L’argomento “ad hominem”: riflessioni sulle funzioni della violenza verbale
Ruth Amossy,Adriana Colombini Mantovani (traduzione a cura di)
Altre Modernità , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to argue that the attack against someone else, as a kind of argument ad hominem, has a civic utility when it gives issue to polemic antagonism. Verbal violence can therefore be seen as functional: a way to express dissension within society and to regulate it. In opposition to the rhetorical search for common agreement, the ad hominem can nevertheless be studied as a discourse strategy attacking someone in order to force him to an antagonist point of view. As a public discussion, the success of this sort of argument relies on the agreement of the group and then on its adequacy to formal rules of social interaction, no matter how manipulated the polemic argument could be. The ethical perspective is thus the very question to be considered in analysing the ad hominem strategy. Its utility as a regulation of violence through its moving on the ground of verbal confrontation couldn't in any way legitimate the fact that polemic expression turns into physical violence or even suggests it, disrupting the thin space where violence can be expressed, by argumentation, as a passionate but regulated antagonism.
Value of Repeated Direct Smear Sputum Examination in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis  [PDF]
Wafaa Ali Hassan, Amany Omar, Saher Khalil, Atef Farouk Al-Qarn
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2014.42007
Abstract:
Introduction: The examination of three sputum samples per suspect has been severely criticized from a public health viewpoint and several recent trials have documented the relative inefficiency of the third smear and the necessity for confirmation of a positive smear has also been contested. Aim: This study, undertaken in Qena, Egypt, aimed to determine the usefulness of examining the second and third direct smear microscopy (DSM) specimen in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Patients and methods: A retrospective study using record review at TB outpatient clinic; Qena Chest Hospital, Egypt, was done from 2010-2013. Direct smear results were collected as one of the following combinations PNN, PPP, PPN, PNP, NNP, NPP, and NPN, NNN, where N is a negative and P a positive smear. The proportion of positive, first, second and third specimen were calculated. Cases were considered positive having at least one positive smear confirmed by another positive one in the absence of sputum culture. Results: Out of 9420 recorded suspects, 719 of them were positive, so smear positivity was 7.6%. The majority of them were diagnosed from the first sample (96.4%). For only 3.6% (26 of 719), the second smear was positive and a third specimen was required (NPP) to make a definitive diagnosis of TB. No recorded isolated positive or negative smears in the third sample (NNP or PPN). Conclusions: These data indicated that, in our locality with limited financial resources, the incremental yield of a second sputum direct smear examination was low, and the third one was negligible indicating that examination of two sputum samples is enough among pulmonary TB patients. A third sample is required only as confirmatory if the second sample was positive. Smear microscopy can be substantially simplified with favourable resource implications.
Alzheimer’s Disease: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Review
Luísa Alves,Ana Sofia A. Correia,Rita Miguel,Paulo Bugalho
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00063
Abstract: Investigation in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the commonest cause of dementia, has been very active in recent years and it may be difficult for the clinician to keep up with all the innovations and to be aware of the implications they have in clinical practice. The authors, thus, reviewed recent literature on the theme in order to provide the clinician with an updated overview, intended to support decision-making on aspects of diagnosis and management. This article begins to focus on the concept of AD and on its pathogenesis. Afterward, epidemiology and non-genetic risk factors are approached. Genetics, including genetic risk factors and guidelines for genetic testing, are mentioned next. Recommendations for diagnosis of AD, including recently proposed criteria, are then reviewed. Data on the variants of AD is presented. First approach to the patient is dealt with next, followed by neuropsychological evaluation. Biomarkers, namely magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography, FDG PET, PiB PET, CSF tau, and Aβ analysis, as well as available data on their diagnostic accuracy, are also discussed. Factors predicting rate of disease progression are briefly mentioned. Finally, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including established and emerging drugs, are addressed.
Research on Survivability of Mobile Ad-hoc Network  [PDF]
Yuan Zhou, Chunhe Xia, Haiquan Wang, Jianzhong Qi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2009.21008
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the survivability of Mobile Ad Hoc Network systemically and give a detailed description of the survivability issues related to the MANET. We begin our work with analyzing the requirements of survivability of ad hoc network, and then we classify the impacts that affect survivability into three categories: dynamic topology, faults and attacks. The impacts of these factors are analyzed individually. A simulation environment for the MANET towards survivability is designed and implemented as well. Experiments that under the requirements and the impacts we de-clared are done based on this environment.
Study of Safety of Molybdenum and Iron-Molybdenum Nanoclaster Polyoxometalates Intended for Targeted Delivery of Drugs  [PDF]
Alexander A. Ostroushko, Irina G. Danilova, Irina F. Gette, Svetlana Yu. Medvedeva, Margarita O. Tonkushina, Anna V. Prokofieva, Maria V. Morozova
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.225066
Abstract: Nanocluster polyoxometalates with a structure of buckyball (fullerene) are a promising means of targeted delivery of drugs in the body. In this paper, based on an analysis of histological sections of liver and kidney and peripheral blood, showed a significant reduction of toxicity of buckyballs, containing ions of molybdenum (VI), the substitution of Mo (V) ions to Fe (III), in contrast to buckyballs based on Mo (V). The absence of accumulation of molybdenum in rats with a daily intramuscular injection of aqueous solutions of both drugs within a month was confirmed.
Water Stress Tolerance, Its Relationship to Stem Reserve Mobilization and Potence Ratio in Spring Wheat  [PDF]
Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Amarah Batool, Sultan AlSultan, Saba Tabasum, Amjed Ali
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42030
Abstract: Twelve wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and their sixteen direct and reciprocal crosses were evaluated for heterosis, heterobeltiosis and potence ratio to determine the potential of wheat genotypes under contrasting water regimes. The highest positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis was observed in cross combination Sehr-06 × Pasban-90 under both water regimes for the trait stem reserve mobilization (SRM). While in trait 1000-grain weight the cross-combination Pari-73 × C-273 (Normal irrigation) and Fsd-08 × SA-42 (water stress) showed highest heterosis and Pari-73 × C-273(Normal irrigation) and Fsd-08 × Chenab-70(water stress) showed highest value of heterobeltiosis. The potence ratio in both traits expressed overdominance estimates exhibiting the presence of transgressive segregants, may be exploited for on-ward selection in the bread wheat improvement. The genotypes showing better SRM based 1000-grain weight in the absence of photosynthesis indicates relative water stress tolerance. This procedure paved an indirect way to screen the wheat genotypes to withhold water stress situation and sustain wheat production.
Isolated Triquetrum Fractures: The Importance of Proper Roentgenograms in Ulnar Sided Wrist Pain  [PDF]
Guzelali Ozdemir, Bekir Yavuz Ucar, M. Halis Cerci, Baris Yilmaz, Kerem Basarir
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2015.57025
Abstract: Triquetrum fractures are the second most common carpal fractures after scaphoid. However they are seldom encountered due to their clinical symptoms and since they cause less functional disability. They can be misdiagnosed as soft-tissue injuries by considering the similar localization of pain and prolonged symptoms. The majority of triquetrum fractures can be diagnosed with direct X-ray. Obtaining three plane (anterior-posterior, lateral and oblique) X-rays is especially important in diagnosing dorsal chip fractures. Accurate diagnosis provides both controlling the symptoms with adequate immobilization, sufficient information of the patient in the acute period and preventing unnecessary diagnostic work up in the subacute period because of prolonged discomfort. In our study, fifteen patients with isolated triquetrum fractures admitted within six year period were presented with their clinical, radiological features and treatment outcomes.
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