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Una ciudad en busca de un gobierno: Una propuesta para Santiago
Chuaqui H,Tomas; Valdivieso F,Patricio;
Revista de ciencia política (Santiago) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-090X2004000100005
Abstract: this article contains an institutional proposal for urban government in santiago that considers its political viability. thus, the strategy followed involves taking into account current institutions, which altered in view of the creation of a properly urban government for santiago. specifically, the model consists in a reinforcement of the post of the "gobernación" of the province of santiago, attributing to it functions which entail a greater autonomy in relation to city government. this proposal also considers the creation of a city council with citizenship representation originated at the municipal level. in this way we simultaneously pursue the objective of designing a structure of urban government that ought to be politically viable, efficient, and democratically representative. we pursue these objectives on the basis of a diagnosis of the current state of affairs, and also making use of some comparative examples of urban government
Building Result-Based Accountability in an Organization  [PDF]
Abu-Hussain Jamal, Mohammad Essawi, Oleg Tilchin
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2014.23024
Abstract: The suggested approach can serve as a guide for building accountability, which promotes successful attainment of a desired organizational goal. The approach provides for the involvement of the largest possible number of employees working toward a result. First, a result structure for attaining an organizational goal is formed through the establishment of interrelation between corresponding tasks, determined by detailed elaboration of the sequential actions. Next, an accountability structure combining accountability levels, structural measures of accountability for the results of performing tasks, and skills relevant to each task is created. Third, the accountability structure and the reward conditions for acceptance of accountability for task performance are declared in an organization. Fourth, the tasks to be performed by employees are chosen, for which employees are to be held accountable as task performers or as task collaborators. The choice is realized by examination of the accountability structure and self-assessment of employee skills. Accountability acceptance is adjusted by the limitations. Fifth, the individual choices of employees are coordinated through discussion among employees with the participation of managers. As a result, heterogeneous collaborative teams to perform the tasks are formed through all levels organizational structure. Finally, building result-based accountability in an organization is completed through the flexible rewarding of employees for accountability acceptance. The reward is divided according to principle: The bigger the measure of accepted accountability is, the greater the reward the employees receive. The flexibility of reward correlates to adjustment of the size of the reward with regard to the roles of employees in task performance and the accountability measure of the employees.
The Importance of Teacher's Effectiveness  [PDF]
Elizabeth Block, Fran Crochet, Leslie Jones, Tiffany Papa
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326173
Abstract: Heightened emphases are on teachers and effective teaching particularly linked to the performances of students in K-12 schools. The purpose of this article is to review perspectives of teaching over a period of several decades in the literature and to investigate the perceptions of practicing teachers enrolled in graduate school regarding necessary components of effective teaching. Results indicate that many of the notions indicated in the literature as essential for effective teaching are aligned with the perceptions of educators currently enrolled in graduate school. There are definite implications embedded in the article for school leadership.
Teacher Preparation and the Tenants of Accountability  [PDF]
Leslie Jones, Gregg Stall, Gary Rosenthal, Jessica Fanguy Cortez, Angelle Hebert, Ruth Ray Jackson, Thea Williams-Black
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.621233
Abstract: There is an obvious interrelationship between K-12 student performances and the preparation of teachers in Teacher Education Programs in Higher Education. As accountability increases in K-12 educational systems for students and teachers, accountability increases in Teacher Preparation Programs. There are different methods for evaluating the effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs; and recent evaluation methods have focused on the performances of the K-12 students through value-added models. There are proponent and opponents of using value-added models. However, there is much agreement on the need to make improvements to Teacher Preparation Programs. A Task Force was formed in 2012 called the Network for Transforming Educator Preparation (NTEP). The Task Force was formed by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Licensure, Program Approval, and Data Collection, Analysis and Reporting are among the key areas addressed by the Tasks Force:
http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Programs/Network_for_Transforming_Educator_Preparation_(NTEP).html. These are the similar areas addressed through accreditation processes for Teacher Preparation Programs. In this article, the challenges of accountability with a focus on accreditation are addressed. A review of teacher accreditation and six elements for improving teacher preparation are also discussed.
Schools of Excellence AND Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition
Kathleen M Brown
International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized "Honor Schools of Excellence." How is "excellence" defined and operationalized in these schools? Are these schools "excellent" for all students? Can a school really be classified by the state as "excellent" and yet still have significant "gaps" and disparities? If so, is the state's formula used to identify exemplary schools too simple, dogmatic, and institutionally flawed? Through the use of equity audits, quantitative data was collected to scan for systemic patterns of equity and inequity across multiple domains of student learning and activities within 24 elementary schools. The intent was to document and distinguish between schools that are promoting and supporting both academic excellence (small gap schools; SGS) and systemic equity and schools that are not (large gap schools; LGS). Results reveal that although demographic, teacher quality, and programmatic audits all indicated a fair amount of equity between SGS and LGS, the achievement audit between both types of schools indicated great disparities. By controlling for or eliminating some of the external variables and internal factors often cited for the achievement gaps between white middle-class children and children of color or children from low-income families, the findings from this study raise more questions than answers. Results do indicate that equity audits are a practical, easy-to-apply tool that educators can use to identify inequalities objectively.
Public Accountability: Implications of the Conspiratorial Relationship between Political Appointees and Civil Servants in Nigeria  [PDF]
Lanre Olu-Adeyemi, Tomola Marshal Obamuyi
iBusiness (IB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2010.22015
Abstract: The paper focuses on the conspiratorial relationship between Accounting Officers and Political Appointees in Nigeria and how this merge has affected public accountability. The conspiratorial relationship has led to flagrant and deliberate abuse of best practices and due process all in a bid to steal public funds. The absence of public accountability has also increased the chances of corrupt practices by both the political appointees and civil servants. This paper advocates administrative reform and good governance, encompassing public accountability to ensure that the people are held accountable for their behaviours as a deterrent to corrupt practices.
Emerging Trends and Old Habits in Higher Education Management: Focus on the Public vs. Private Funding Debate  [PDF]
Federico Barnabè
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326152
Abstract: This work takes into consideration the wide reform process that is impacting on Universities all over the world, especially focusing on the public versus private funding debate for Higher Education Institutions. In this regard, the paper provides some considerations on possible funding sources, discusses data related to the relevance of public funding and presents the features of the main models of public funding across many countries, particularly focusing on Europe.
Marketing Accountability: Defining Expectations and Measuring Outcomes  [PDF]
David W. Stewart
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2014.23019
Abstract: This paper calls for work that focuses on the relationships of marketing activities and outcomes and measures of the financial performance of the firm. More specifically, the paper suggests the need to link marketing outcomes to the cash flow of the firm and the business model that generates the cash flow. The paper also calls for greater alignment of measures of marketing accountability with expectations and responsibilities of the marketing organization.
Accounting as an Instrument of Social Justice  [PDF]
Theresa F. Henry, Athar Murtuza, Renee E. Weiss
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.31009
Abstract: This article builds upon calls for a shift in the paradigm of the accounting discipline, away from preparing or certifying financial reporting of management activities aimed at maximizing share-holder wealth toward recognition that businesses must also be accountable to other stakeholders and indeed the community at large. If individuals in business apply a sound moral compass to their activities and decisions, we believe that commerce can shift toward outcomes that may not only satisfy shareholders but also contribute to the common good. In this article, we are concerned with the role of accounting and business education. We enumerate recommendations toward achieving this paradigm shift from profit maximization to social justice. In some cases, the instructor may implement changes in their pedagogy at their discretion, while in other cases the change may require approval at the department or at higher levels of the university administration. We begin with a discussion of recent accounting and financial reporting failures as well as the global financial crisis. The dangers created by risky practices of financial institutions “too big to fail” and the systemic risk of a global marketplace have not been resolved. We articulate the need for ethics in the accounting and business curricula, a need that is hardly satisfied by the one course typically offered by universities at the graduate level. We propose that businesses and the accounting profession can realize change by redefining accounting as an instrument of accountability. To accomplish this change, each university must critically examine its curricula and reflect topics and material most important to ethical and moral behavior, including borrowing from the liberal arts disciplines. Finally, this article shows how an interfaith approach grounded in social justice to infuse ethical and moral behavior within the accounting curriculum can work.
A Review of Accountability Audit  [PDF]
Liang Li
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.93029
In the report of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, it was clearly stated that the implementation of the accountability audit, speeding up the construction of ecological civilization, strengthening the responsibility for environmental protection, and establishing an accountability system for environmental protection. The accountability audit is a new extension of government audit in the function of state governance, which plays an important institutional role in regional environmental governance and has a deterrent effect on government officials in various regions. The main purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical basis of the accountability audit, to explore the mechanism principle of the accountability audit and the analysis of the accountability audit by the analysts. The conclusion is that the accountability audit is a new development of the national audit function, and providing a supervisory role in natural resources and the natural environment.
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