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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8067 matches for " Zulfiqar Ahmad "
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GIS as Project Manager in Geophysical Applications Software  [PDF]
Khalid Amin Khan, Gulraiz Akhter, Zulfiqar Ahmad
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2011.32014
Abstract: The changing trends in information technology have greatly influenced the role of GIS in spatial data management, analysis, processing and presentation. It has evolved from the conventional cartography and image processing to advanced 3D visualization and dynamic graphics tools. Due to this evolving nature of GIS, it has found wide applications in a number of diverse fields. Geophysical exploration projects involve data acquisition at hundreds of spatial locations resulting in large number of datasets. It takes a great deal of time to manage all these datasets during data processing and interpretation. This paper presents the use of GIS as an effective project management tool, providing an interactive data access interface in compute intensive geophysical processing applications. A reusable GIS software component is presented which can be used by geophysical applications to manage their datasets. A practical example is included to demonstrate the implementation of this GIS component as an embedded Project Manager in a seismic refraction software.
On Size-Biased Double Weighted Exponential Distribution (SDWED)  [PDF]
Zahida Perveen, Zulfiqar Ahmed, Munir Ahmad
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2016.65076
Abstract: This paper introduces a new distribution based on the exponential distribution, known as Size-biased Double Weighted Exponential Distribution (SDWED). Some characteristics of the new distribution are obtained. Plots for the cumulative distribution function, pdf and hazard function, tables with values of skewness and kurtosis are provided. As a motivation, the statistical application of the results to a problem of ball bearing data has been provided. It is observed that the new distribution is skewed to the right and bears most of the properties of skewed distribution. It is found that our newly proposed distribution fits better than size-biased Rayleigh and Maxwell distributions and many other distributions. Since many researchers have studied the procedure of the weighted distributions in the estates of forest, biomedicine and biostatistics etc., we hope in numerous fields of theoretical and applied sciences, the findings of this paper will be useful for the practitioners.
Moderate Interpretation with Attribute Analysis and 3d Visualization for Deeper Prospects of Balkassar Field, Central Potwar, Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  [PDF]
Farhana Masood, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Muhammad Sohail Khan
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2017.85037
Abstract: Balkassar is an old field with considerable remaining potential. The 2d, 3d seismic and earlier vintages show that Balkassar is composed of two folds that impart heart shaped geometry. It appears likely the early Eocene age Bhadrar formation may provide commercial production with lower water cuts from the eastern lobe (yet untapped) of the structure that may have at least 30 million barrels of unrecovered oil. Horizontal drilling may have promise as an optimum technique for recovery of oil from Paleogene reservoirs. Encouraging oil indications have also been recorded from the early Permian age tobra formation from Balkassar oxy-1 that was not tested by Oxy. Tobra sandstone reservoir can have a matrix porosity approaching 8%. When fractured recoveries from it can be relatively better than the Paleogene reservoirs. The 2D and 3D seismic acquisition has confirmed that the eastern lobe (yet untapped) of the Balkassar field is structurally higher and steeper than the Western lobe which has thus far produced over 30 million barrels. The Eastern lobe thus offers good potential for recovery of oil from the Bhadrar reservoir. The entire field is likely to have potential for recovery of oil from the early Eocene aged Tobra formation. 2-d and 3-D Seismic data interpretation, attribute analysis and visualization for deeper prospect carried in Balksasar field. Tobra and Khewra formation studied for deeper potential drilling. Time contour and depth contour map shows potential for deeper prospects. Also attribute analysis and 3d visualization show good results for deeper potential of Tobra and Khewar formations. Seismic amplitude, Reflection strength, Apparent polarity attribute are visualized and interpreted to find the potential for Tobra and Khewra formation. 3-D visualization also showed positive results for Tobra and Khewra formations.
Synthesis and evaluation of diphenol aldimines as inhibitors of Escherichia coli ATPase and cell growth  [PDF]
Zulfiqar Ahmad, Prasanna K. Dadi, Jesse Elord, Ismail O. Kady
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.22019
Abstract: A series of structurally related diphenol aldimines (DPAs) were synthesized. These aldimines involve different substitution patterns of their phenolic groups, for the purpose of optimizing their ability to inhibit ATP synthase. The inhibitory effects of these DPA compounds were evaluated using purified F1 and membrane-bound F1F0 E. coli ATP synthase. Structure-activity relationship studies of these di-phenol compounds showed that maximum inhibition was achieved when both phenolic groups are either in the meta-positions (DPA-7, IC50 = 2.0 μM), or in the ortho-positions (DPA-9, IC50 = 5.0 μM). The lowest ATP synthase inhibition was found to be when the phenolic groups are both in the para-positions (DPA-2, IC50 = 100.0 μM). Results also show that the inhibitory effects of these compounds on ATPase are completely reversible. Identical inhibition patterns of both the purified F1 and the membrane bound F1F0 enzyme were observed. Study of E. coli cell growth showed that these diphenol aldimines effectively inhibit both ATP synthesis and cell growth.
Candida Infections and Their Prevention
M. Anaul Kabir,Zulfiqar Ahmad
ISRN Preventive Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/763628
Abstract: Infections caused by Candida species have been increased dramatically worldwide due to the increase in immunocompromised patients. For the prevention and cure of candidiasis, several strategies have been adopted at clinical level. Candida infected patients are commonly treated with a variety of antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and flucytosine. Moreover, early detection and speciation of the fungal agents will play a crucial role for administering appropriate drugs for antifungal therapy. Many modern technologies like MALDI-TOF-MS, real-time PCR, and DNA microarray are being applied for accurate and fast detection of the strains. However, during prolonged use of these drugs, many fungal pathogens become resistant and antifungal therapy suffers. In this regard, combination of two or more antifungal drugs is thought to be an alternative to counter the rising drug resistance. Also, many inhibitors of efflux pumps have been designed and tested in different models to effectively treat candidiasis. However, most of the synthetic drugs have side effects and biomedicines like antibodies and polysaccharide-peptide conjugates could be better alternatives and safe options to prevent and cure the diseases. Furthermore, availability of genome sequences of Candida??albicans and other non-albicans strains has made it feasible to analyze the genes for their roles in adherence, penetration, and establishment of diseases. Understanding the biology of Candida species by applying different modern and advanced technology will definitely help us in preventing and curing the diseases caused by fungal pathogens. 1. Introduction Candida species are associated with human beings for quite long time as harmless commensals. They are commonly found on the mucosal surfaces of gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and skin of humans. However, they become opportunistic pathogens in immunologically weak and immunocompromised patients. As opportunistic pathogens, they can cause local mucosal infections and sometimes, systemic infections in which Candida species can spread to all major organs and colonize in these organs [1, 2]. The systemic infections can be life threatening among the individuals having severely paralyzed immune system such as AIDS patients, people undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancers, and patients undergoing organ transplants. As the number of immunocompromised patients is increasing worldwide due to change in life style and improvement in medical facilities, infections caused by Candida species and mainly by
POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING (PONV)
ZULFIQAR ALI,IRSHAD AHMAD,TANVEER AHMAD
The Professional Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effect of preoperative single dose injection dexamethasone for prevention of PONV in patientsundergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and comparing it with normal saline (placebo). Design: Experimental RCT study. Place andduration of study: The study was conducted at Madina Teaching hospital, University Medical & Dental College, Faisalabad from January, 2008 to October 2009. Materials and Methods: After approval from the hospital ethical committee, 200 patients with ASA I & II were included in the study. We divided the patients into two groups; group I received preoperative dexamethasone (8mg) and the group II received normal saline (placebo) 90 minutes before the surgery. Patients were observed for any episodes of nausea or vomiting, need for rescue antiemetics, and complete responses in the postoperative period. The complete response was defined as no nausea, no vomiting, and no ant emetic medication during a 24-h postoperative period. This was also the primary efficacy end point of the study. The data was analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test with P < 0.05 taken as significant. Results: Nineteen patients (19%) in the dexamethasone group reported nausea, compared with 43 (43%) in placebo group (p<0.05). Eight patients (8%) in the dexamethasone group reported vomiting and twenty two patients (22%) in the placebo group reported vomiting (P <0.05). In group I, thirteen patients (13%) asked for rescue anti-emetic where as in group II (placebo group) thirty six patients (36%) asked for rescue anti-emetic (p<0.05). Seventy three patients (73%) in the dexamethasone group showed a complete response, compared with 35 (35%) in placebo group (p<0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that preoperative dexamethasone (8mg) reduces the incidence of PONV as compared to placebo. As it is a cheap, freely available drug causing no complications, it should be used in otherwise fit selected patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystctomy.
Silicon Mediated Arsenic Reduction in Rice by Limiting Its Uptake  [PDF]
Muhammad Mohsin Raza, Sami Ullah, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Sohaib Saqib, Sarfraz Ahmad, Hafiz Muhammad Bilal, Farman Wali
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.71001
Abstract: This study was planned to examine the effects of exogenous silicon supply on growth parameters and arsenic accumulation level in rice. The experiment was conducted in the wire house of Saline Agriculture Research Centre, Institute of Soil and Environmental Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The study was comprised of treatments viz: control; (100 μM Arsenic); (200 μM Arsenic); (5 mM Silicon); (5 mM Silicon + 100 μM Arsenic) and (5 mM Silicon + 200 μM Arsenic). Results revealed that maximum shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight were observed in (5 mM Si) solution. In the same way, maximum number of tillers was also recorded in (5 mM Si) solution; while silicon application failed to alleviate arsenic concentration of rice genotype.
Functional Residues in Proteins
Shandar Ahmad,Jung-Ying Wang,Zulfiqar Ahmad,Faizan Ahmad
Journal of Amino Acids , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/606354
Abstract:
Role of Charged Residues in the Catalytic Sites of Escherichia coli ATP Synthase
Zulfiqar Ahmad,Florence Okafor,Thomas F. Laughlin
Journal of Amino Acids , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/785741
Abstract: Here we describe the role of charged amino acids at the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli ATP synthase. There are four positively charged and four negatively charged residues in the vicinity of of E. coli ATP synthase catalytic sites. Positive charges are contributed by three arginine and one lysine, while negative charges are contributed by two aspartic acid and two glutamic acid residues. Replacement of arginine with a neutral amino acid has been shown to abrogate phosphate binding, while restoration of phosphate binding has been accomplished by insertion of arginine at the same or a nearby location. The number and position of positive charges plays a critical role in the proper and efficient binding of phosphate. However, a cluster of many positive charges inhibits phosphate binding. Moreover, the presence of negatively charged residues seems a requisite for the proper orientation and functioning of positively charged residues in the catalytic sites. This implies that electrostatic interactions between amino acids are an important constituent of initial phosphate binding in the catalytic sites. Significant loss of function in growth and ATPase activity assays in mutants generated through charge modulations has demonstrated that precise location and stereochemical interactions are of paramount importance.
HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES OF SOIL DEGRADATION IN CHOLISTAN
Farooq Ahmad,Zulfiqar Ali,Sameera Farooq
Revista Sociedade & Natureza , 2005,
Abstract: Cholistan is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, which includes the Thar Desert in Sindhprovince of Pakistan and the Rajasthan Desert in India, covering an area of 26,330 Km2, it lieswithin Southeast quadrant of Punjab province between 27o42' and 29o45' North latitude and69o52' and 73o05' East longitude (Arshad et al., 1995; Ahmad, 1999).The word ‘Cholistan’ has been derived from a Turkish word, ‘Chol’, means a desert, whilesome historians believe that this name has been distorted from Iraqi (Kurdish) word,‘Chilistan’ meaning waterless waste land (Ahmad et al., 1992; Auj, 1995 and Ahmad, 1999),popularly Cholistan is known as ‘Rohi’. In a dialect still spoken in some parts of Tibet, ‘roh’means a hill, from which the name Rohilla has been attributed. In fact, Rohi has been derivedfrom the Pushto word ‘roh’, meaning is a sandy desert (Auj, 1987; 1991; Ahmad, 1999b).
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