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Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), as a non-invasive neuroimaging technique, was used to monitor the activation of prefrontal lobe on human brain during sweet taste processing. The primary aim of the present study was to find the region of interest (ROI) which is related to sweetness, and make further understanding of the central organization of taste. Based on event-related design, the experiments were performed with 16 volunteers by sweet taste stimulus. It was confirmed that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in sweet taste processing and fNIRS provided an alternative way for studying taste-related brain function under more natural conditions. This study might be effective for detecting the accession area in the cortex of sweet taste and helpful for studying on human feeding and taste disease like taste dyspepsia or disorder.
The aim of the study was to investigate the
representation of taste in human prefrontal cortex (PFC), in particular, to
compare the representation of a pleasant and an aversive taste using functional
near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), so as to obtain further understanding of
the taste preference mechanism. The pleasant stimulus used was sweet taste (10%
sucrose), and the unpleasant stimulus was sour taste (1% critic acid). Based on
event-related design, the experiments were performed with 16 healthy
volunteers using the OEG-16 fNIRS sensor. A general linear model was used to
analyze the collected data. For the concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin
(ΔoxyHb), we found that significant deactivation
was induced by sweetness and sourness in parts of the frontopolar area,
orbitofrontal area and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in bilateral hemisphere
of human brain. And the right PFC showed different levels of activation between
sweetness and sourness. In addition, brain activities were more sensitive to
sourness than sweetness. Finally, we confirmed that the PFC was involved in
sweet and sour taste processing, and fNIRS provided an alternative way for
studying taste-related brain function under more natural conditions.
This paper intends to give a code about
atmospheric propagation effects affecting terahertz (THz) communication system.
The main focus is on attenuation caused by atmospheric gases with the radiation
transmission theory and the empirical continuum absorption based on the HITRAN
database. Theoretical aspects about them are presented, emphasizing on those
which deserve special attention as frequency increases. Laboratory measurements
of the absorption spectra of laboratory air and major atmospheric gases mixed
with water vapor in the 250 - 350 GHz frequency range at atmospheric pressure
and room temperature on a basis of backward wave oscillators (BWOs) are
obtained. The results of experiments are compared with the calculations. It is
found that the water vapor transmittance is greater than the calculation. Data
of these measurements agree with the results of analysis of atmospheric spectra
with in statistical accuracy of experiments. Accurate measurements are also
needed for further studies of the physics of the molecules and their interactions.
The investigation makes it significant for enhancing accuracy of models of
radiation propagation in the atmosphere.