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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 119996 matches for " Zhi Zhang "
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Technology of Extracting Kiwi Fruit Seed Oil with Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzyme and Response Surface Method  [PDF]
Zhi Zhang, Mengting Pan, Dongmin Liu
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.79081
Abstract: Taken kiwi fruit as raw material, this paper extracted kiwi fruit seed oil with ultrasonic-assisted enzyme, researched the influence of factors such as liquid-to-solid ratio, granularity, type of enzyme, ultrasonic power, treating time, enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, pH and enzyme additive on oil extraction, and optimized the extracting technology of kiwi fruit seed oil with response surface method. The result shows that the best technical parameter is: material granularity: 60, liquid-to-solid ratio: 1:10 (g/mL), ultrasonic power: 400 W, treating time: 30 min, enzyme amount: 2.50%, pH: 9.2, enzymolysis temperature: 53°C, enzymolysis time: 2.80 h; and the extracting ratio under such condition is 92.57%.
Preparation of Microcapsules and Half Life of the Kiwi Fruit Seed Oil by Complex Coacervation  [PDF]
Zhi Zhang, Mengting Pan, Dongmin Liu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.82015
Abstract: The experiment adopts complex coacervation to prepare microcapsules. Through the experimental comparison, soybean protein isolated-maltodextrin is determined as the wall material for the experimental preparation of the microcapsules of kiwi fruit seed oil. This paper researched the effects of wall material concentration, core wall ratio and other factors on complex coacervation of kiwi fruit seed oil microcapsules embedding rate, determining that the best wall material concentration is 1%, core wall ratio is 1:1, and the optimum pH ratio is 3.0, temperature is 40°C, and the optimum curing time is 6 hours. The experiment carried out half life research on the microcapsules prepared by the complex coacervation of kiwi fruit seed oil microcapsule. By calculation: the degradation rate constant of kiwi fruit seed oil microcapsules prepared by complex coacervation is 2.793. According to the regression equation it can calculate the half life of kiwi fruit seed oil microcapsules is 18.58 months, about a year and a half.
Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Distribution and Large-Scale Circulation Features of Extreme Weather Events in Shanxi Province, China in Recent 30 Years  [PDF]
Yanmeng Li, Hai Zhi, Dongfeng Zhang
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.73009
Abstract: Extreme weather events such as persistent high temperatures, heavy rains or sudden cold waves in Shanxi Province in China have brought great losses and disasters to people’s production and life. It is of great practical significance to study the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of extreme weather events and the circulation background field. We selected daily high temperature data (≥35°C), daily minimum temperature data and daily precipitation data (≥50 mm) from 109 meteorological stations in Shanxi Province, China from 1981 to 2010, then set the period in which the temperature is ≥35°C for more than 3 days as a high temperature extreme weather event, define the station in which 24 hour cumulative precipitation is ≥50 mm precipitation on a certain day (20 - 20 hours, Beijing time) as a rainstorm weather, and determine the cold air activity with daily minimum temperature dropped by more than 8°C for 24 hours, or decreased by 10°C for 48 h, and a daily minimum temperature of ≤4°C as a cold weather process. We statistically analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics and trends of high temperature, heavy rain and cold weather and the circulation background field. We count the number of extreme weather events such as persistent high temperatures, heavy rains and cold weather frosts in Shanxi, and analyze the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics, trends and general circulation background of extreme weather events. We analyze and find out the common features of the large-scale circulation background field in various extreme weather events. Through the study of the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of extreme weather events in Shanxi, including persistent high temperature, heavy rain or sudden cold wave frost weather, we summarize the large-scale circulation characteristics of such extreme weather events. It will provide some reference for future related weather forecasting.
LC/MS/MS warfarin assay ? An emerging tool for the early detection of cytochrome P450-associated drug?drug interactions in drug discovery
Zhi-Yi Zhang
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/2003/285309
Abstract: The LC/MS/MS warfarin assay, combining stereo- and regioselective cytochrome P450 (CYP) form-specific warfarin hydroxylation with sensitive and specific LC/MS/MS detection technique, is emerging to be a promising tool for the study of CYP-associated drug−drug interactions for new chemical entities (NCEs) during drug discovery process.
Correction: In Search of the Biological Significance of Modular Structures in Protein Networks
Zhi Wang,Jianzhi Zhang
PLOS Computational Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030146
In Search of the Biological Significance of Modular Structures in Protein Networks
Zhi Wang,Jianzhi Zhang
PLOS Computational Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030107
Abstract: Many complex networks such as computer and social networks exhibit modular structures, where links between nodes are much denser within modules than between modules. It is widely believed that cellular networks are also modular, reflecting the relative independence and coherence of different functional units in a cell. While many authors have claimed that observations from the yeast protein–protein interaction (PPI) network support the above hypothesis, the observed structural modularity may be an artifact because the current PPI data include interactions inferred from protein complexes through approaches that create modules (e.g., assigning pairwise interactions among all proteins in a complex). Here we analyze the yeast PPI network including protein complexes (PIC network) and excluding complexes (PEC network). We find that both PIC and PEC networks show a significantly greater structural modularity than that of randomly rewired networks. Nonetheless, there is little evidence that the structural modules correspond to functional units, particularly in the PEC network. More disturbingly, there is no evolutionary conservation among yeast, fly, and nematode modules at either the whole-module or protein-pair level. Neither is there a correlation between the evolutionary or phylogenetic conservation of a protein and the extent of its participation in various modules. Using computer simulation, we demonstrate that a higher-than-expected modularity can arise during network growth through a simple model of gene duplication, without natural selection for modularity. Taken together, our results suggest the intriguing possibility that the structural modules in the PPI network originated as an evolutionary byproduct without biological significance.
Why Is the Correlation between Gene Importance and Gene Evolutionary Rate So Weak?
Zhi Wang,Jianzhi Zhang
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000329
Abstract: One of the few commonly believed principles of molecular evolution is that functionally more important genes (or DNA sequences) evolve more slowly than less important ones. This principle is widely used by molecular biologists in daily practice. However, recent genomic analysis of a diverse array of organisms found only weak, negative correlations between the evolutionary rate of a gene and its functional importance, typically measured under a single benign lab condition. A frequently suggested cause of the above finding is that gene importance determined in the lab differs from that in an organism's natural environment. Here, we test this hypothesis in yeast using gene importance values experimentally determined in 418 lab conditions or computationally predicted for 10,000 nutritional conditions. In no single condition or combination of conditions did we find a much stronger negative correlation, which is explainable by our subsequent finding that always-essential (enzyme) genes do not evolve significantly more slowly than sometimes-essential or always-nonessential ones. Furthermore, we verified that functional density, approximated by the fraction of amino acid sites within protein domains, is uncorrelated with gene importance. Thus, neither the lab-nature mismatch nor a potentially biased among-gene distribution of functional density explains the observed weakness of the correlation between gene importance and evolutionary rate. We conclude that the weakness is factual, rather than artifactual. In addition to being weakened by population genetic reasons, the correlation is likely to have been further weakened by the presence of multiple nontrivial rate determinants that are independent from gene importance. These findings notwithstanding, we show that the principle of slower evolution of more important genes does have some predictive power when genes with vastly different evolutionary rates are compared, explaining why the principle can be practically useful despite the weakness of the correlation.
2-(3-Methoxyphenoxy)benzoic acid
Zhi-Fang Zhang
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811011019
Abstract: In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H12O4, the molecules form classical O—H...O hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acid dimers. These dimers are linked by C—H...pi; interactions into a three-dimensional network. The benzene rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 69.6 (3)°.
Bis(μ2-2-chlorobenzoato-κ2O:O′)bis[(2-chlorobenzoato-κO)(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N:N′)copper(II)] dihydrate
Zhi-Fang Zhang
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811029709
Abstract: In the title compound, [Cu2(C7H4ClO2)4(C12H8N2)2]·2H2O, the two crystallographically independent dinuclear complex molecules, A and B, have different Cu...Cu separations, viz. 3.286 (1) in A and 3.451 (1) in B. Both independent molecules reside on inversion centres, so the asymmetric unit contains a half-molecule each of A and B and two water molecules. Each Cu atom has a square-pyramidal environment, being coordinated by two O atoms from two bridging 2-chlorobenzoate ligands, one O atom from a monodentate 2-chlorobenzoate ligand and two N atoms from a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand. The water molecules can also be considered as coordinating ligands, which complete the coordination geometry up to distorted octahedral with elongated Cu—O distances, viz. 3.024 (3) in A and 2.917 (3) in B. In the crystal, weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions contribute to the consolidation of the crystal packing.
Diethyl 2-{[(4-methoxy-3-pyridyl)amino]methylidene}malonate
Zhi-Fang Zhang
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811026353
Abstract: In the title molecule, C14H8N2O5, the amino group is involved in the formation an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into ribbons along the b axis.
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