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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 104192 matches for " Zhang WY "
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Operation and Effect of Presumptions in Civil Proceedings: An Inquiry into the interpretation of Art 2024 of the Ethiopian Civil Code
WY Wodage
Mizan Law Review , 2010,
Abstract: ‘Presumption’ is an ambiguous term that one often finds in substantive and procedural laws. The controversy regarding the operation and effect of ‘presumption’ in civil proceedings has not yet been conclusively resolved despite efforts of scholars. In Ethiopia, it has been subject to different judicial interpretations. The Cassation Division of the Federal Supreme Court has adopted a binding interpretation of Art 2024 of the Civil Code on the presumption of payment of debts. Yet, the propriety of this authoritative interpretation has become contentious. This Article examines the operations and effects of presumptions in civil actions in general and inquires into the propriety of the precedent adopted by the Cassation Division. It argues that the Division’s interpretation needs to be reconsidered when the issue arises in future cases.
Development of a novel niosomal system for oral delivery of Ginkgo biloba extract
Jin Y, Wen JY, Garg S, Liu D, Zhou YL, Teng LR, Zhang WY
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S37984
Abstract: pment of a novel niosomal system for oral delivery of Ginkgo biloba extract Original Research (924) Total Article Views Authors: Jin Y, Wen JY, Garg S, Liu D, Zhou YL, Teng LR, Zhang WY Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 421 - 430 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S37984 Received: 11 September 2012 Accepted: 06 November 2012 Published: 24 January 2013 Ye Jin,1,4 Jingyuan Wen,2 Sanjay Garg,3 Da Liu,1 Yulin Zhou,1 Lirong Teng,1,* Weiyu Zhang,4,* 1College of Life Science, Jilin University, Jilin, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; 4School of Pharmacy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Jilin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study was to develop an optimal niosomal system to deliver Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) with improved oral bioavailability and to replace the conventional GbE tablets. Methods: In this study, the film dispersion-homogenization method was used to prepare GbE niosomes. The resulting GbE niosome suspension was freeze-dried or spray-dried to improve the stability of the niosomes. GbE-loaded niosomes were formulated and characterized in terms of their morphology, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and angle of repose, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis was performed. In vitro release and in vivo distribution studies were also carried out. Results: The particle size of the optimal delivery system prepared with Tween 80, Span 80, and cholesterol was about 141 nm. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in drug entrapment efficiency between the spray-drying method (about 77.5%) and the freeze-drying method (about 50.1%). The stability study revealed no significant change in drug entrapment efficiency for the GbE niosomes at 4°C and 25°C after 3 months. The in vitro release study suggested that GbE niosomes can prolong the release of flavonoid glycosides in phosphate-buffered solution (pH 6.8) for up to 48 hours. The in vivo distribution study showed that the flavonoid glycoside content in the heart, lung, kidney, brain, and blood of rats treated with the GbE niosome carrier system was greater than in the rats treated with the oral GbE tablet (P < 0.01). No flavonoid glycosides were detected in the brain tissue of rats given the oral GbE tablets, but they were detected in the brain tissue of rats given the GbE niosomes. Conclusion: Niosomes are a promising oral system for delivery of GbE to the brain.
Discussion on genetic mechanism of hornitos in Wudalianchi volcanic field

Gao WY,Li JH,Mao X,Zhang TR,

岩石学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Majority of 1537 hornitos in Wudalianchi volcanic field distribute in lava flows of Huoshaoshan. Especially, lava plateau between Fourth and Fifth pools with sufficient water, has hornitos concentrated distributed, in the largest scale and best developed. After morphologic and concentrated distribution characteristic analysis, it comes to the conclusion that vapor in mixed gas is dominant in the formation of hornito, and gravity is also of some importance to shape a hornito. When the basic lava with volatile overflowed near to water area, the surface of lava condensated and consolidated while inside remained high temperature and low viscosity. Mixed gas containing volcanic gas and vapor started to aggregate after lava meeting groundwater, and intermittently broke surface of lava to escape, together with some lava spattering up and stacking around the vent to form a hornito, the inside of which stayed hollow as the route way for gas to escape. When air pressure failed to eject lava from top jet, growth of a hornito ended.
Representa??o e interven??o em saúde pública: vírus, mosquitos e especialistas da Funda??o Rockefeller no Brasil
L?wy, Ilana;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59701999000100006
Abstract: the attempts by experts from the of the rockefeller foundation (rf) to eliminate yellow fever in brazil were hampered by the pathology?s low visibility. most cases of yellow fever were atypical and easily confused with other fevers. in the 1920s, the rf experts who tried to assess the presence of yellow fever relied mainly on clinical observations. in the 1930s, however, they devised indirect methods of visualizing the presence of the disease agent. visceroctomy revealed the presence of acute cases of the disease. mouse protection tests revealed past contacts with the agent. taken together, these tests enabled the rf specialists to construct maps which indicated zones where the disease was endemic and to target specific anti-yellow fever campaigns based on selective elimination of the yellow fever vector, that is, the mosquito aedes aegypti. in public health, like in the sciences, representation practices shape intervention.
Cancer, women, and public health: the history of screening for cervical cancer
L?wy, Ilana;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702010000500004
Abstract: cytological screening for cervical cancer (the pap smear), the first attempt at mass screening for a human malignancy, is often presented as a non-problematic demonstration of the feasibility of such screening. screening for this tumor became a model for screening for other malignancies: breast, colon and prostate. my text follows the early history of the pap smear and the conditions that led to its transformation into a routine screening test, despite persistent problems in stabilizing the readings of microscopic slides. it then analyzes the consequences of diffusion of the pap smear, controversies surrounding this test, the mutual shaping of diagnostic tests and the disease cervical cancer, and the problematic extension of the lessons learned in screening for cervical tumors to other malignancies.
Les métaphores de l'immunologie: guerre et paix
L?wy, Ilana;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59701996000100002
Abstract: immunology has always relied on metaphorical language. in its early beginnings, it varied between bellicose images and images that stressed the interaction of immunity mechanisms with the organism's physiological functions overall. in the late nineteenth century, white blood globules were not only compared to 'border police' assigned to rebuffing intruders- an army formed to combat the invaders - but were also described as a physiological mechanism for eliminating aged, dead cells, at times exterminators of foreign bodies. antibodies were described as very powerful, deadly weapons but also as an integral part of mechanisms that allowed cells to assimilate food. this duality of images holds true today. the article analyzes the emergence and development of these images, relating them to the redefinition of immunology as a science of the self and non-self and dissecting them in light of recent events, such as the aids epidemic.
Eric Hobsbawm, sociólogo do milenarismo campesino
L?wy, Michael;
Estudos Avan?ados , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40142010000200007
Abstract: thanks to the problematic of millenarianism, eric hobsbawm's historiography incorporates all the richness of socio-cultural subjectivity - the depth of beliefs, feelings and emotions - into his analysis of historical events, which, from this viewpoint, are no longer perceived simply as products of the "objective" interplay of economic or political forces. although he makes a careful distinction between primitive millenarianisms and modern revolutionary movements, hobsbawm nevertheless shows their elective affinity between them. this does not mean that all revolutionary movements are millenarian in the strict sense or - which is even worse - that they are connected to a primitive type of chiliasm. all the same, the affinity between them is a basic fact in the history of peasant revolts against capitalist modernization. this is one of the most interesting research hypotheses outlined by hobsbawm in his work of that period. he illustrated his idea in two fascinating case studies: rural anarchism in andalusia and the sicilian peasant leagues, both arising at the end of the nineteenth century and continuing into the twentieth.
Ludwik Fleck e a presente história das ciências
L?wy, Ilana;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59701994000100003
Abstract: in the 1920's and 30's the physician and epistemologist ludwik fleck developed a highly original ideas on science. these ideas were rooted in fleck's own experience as bacteriologist and immunologist and, on the other hand, in the practice-based thought of the polish school of philosophy of medicine. fleck affirmed that 'scientific facts' are constructed by groups of scientists, in his terms, by "thought collectives". each thougth collective elaborates a "thought style" which contains norms, concepts and practices of that collective. newcomers to a professional community are socialized into its specific thought style and develop an unique way of viewing the world. scientific facts produced by a given thought collective are therefore shaped by that collective's thought style, and are incommensurable with facts produced by other thought collectives. the incommensurability of scientific facts and its consequence, the need to 'translate' these facts into the style of different thought collectives in an inter-community use are, fleck proposed, an important source of innovations in science and in society. fleck ideas were rediscovered in the 1960's and 70's, first by thomas kuhn, who in the introduction to his book, the structure of scientific revolutions, acknowledges his ties with fleck's thought, then by sociologists of science. beyond their direct influence, fleck's epistemology has many affinities with new trends in science studies, focused on the scientists' practices, and interested in their material, discursive and social techniques.
Detectando más-forma??es, detectando riscos: dilemas do diagnóstico pré-natal
L?wy, Ilana;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832011000100004
Abstract: this article aims at analyzing the factors that mold the material cultures of contemporary biomedicine. it considers the historical development of diagnostic techniques, how they define the "norm", and influence the evolution of conducts of professionals as well as those of concerned members of the family. following a brief reconstruction of the historical evolution of pre-natal diagnostics, we present a detailed case analysis of a particular anomaly: aneuploidy of the sexual chromosomes (acs). although some cases of acs may represent grave and even life-threatening deficiencies, the great majority of children who possess an abnormal number of sexual chromosomes experience relatively minor problems. in many cases, the very diagnostic of acs only surfaces during the person's adolescence. thus, especially in contexts that permit legal abortion, the prenatal diagnosis of these syndromes renders visible the construction of the "abnormal fetus" and the "risk of having an abnormal child", as a techno-social phenomenon that emerges over time through the interaction of biomedical techniques, the organization of medical work, legal limitations, and sociocultural considerations
Marx e Engels como sociólogos da religi?o
L?wy, Michael;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64451998000100009
Abstract: more than the question of the marxist critique of religious alienation this article deals with marx and engels' contribution to the sociology of religious facts. a clear view of this field could surprise us, writes the author. the article tries to show the nature of this surprise.
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