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In this study, volatile compounds present in Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem (TS) were investigated and their characteristic aromatic components were identified using Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). The optimum conditions for extracting the volatiles from TS were achieved with the experimental parameters including the use of a 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre, an extraction temperature of 40℃ and an extraction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, 56 volatile compounds were separated and 53 were identified by GC-MS. Among them, 21 sulfide compounds (42.146%) and 27 terpenes（55.984%) were found to be the major components. The sample was analyzed by GC-O and 26 elutes were sniffed and their sensory descriptions evaluated by an odor panelists. Analysis of the data indicated, two compounds cis and trans isomers of 2-Mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene were major contributors to the characteristic aroma of TS.
The aim of this study was to screen strongly-antioxidant
fruits and vegetables and supply practical diet guidance for the public. We used 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing
antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic
acid (ABTS) and total reducing power (TRP) assays to investigate antioxidant
activities in 110 fruits and vegetables. To analyze the correlation between
antioxidant capacities and main reducing substance contents, total phenolic,
flavonoid and vitamin C contents were assessed. The results showed great
variation in antioxidant activity, and fifteen fruits and vegetables possessed
the strongest antioxidant capacities: Toona
sinensis, hawthorn, jujube, lotus root, persimmon, red plum, black plum,
chilli pepper, star fruit, strawberry, blueberry, cherry, peach, pomegranate
and great burdock. Total phenolic contents showed higher correlation with
antioxidant capacity when using FRAP and TRP assays than when using the DPPH or
ABTS assay. Phenolics and flavonoids, rather than vitamin C, contributed to
antioxidant potential in most fruits and vegetables.
In this paper, we present Yan’s sine-cosine method and Wazwaz’s
sine-cosine method to solve the (2+1)-dimensional Zoomeron equation. New exact
travelling wave solutions are explicitly obtained with the aid of symbolic
computation. The study confirms the power of the two schemes.