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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10043 matches for " Zero Ho-Man Tse "
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Assessment of Cellular Estrogenic Activity Based on Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Reduction of Soluble-Form Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Expression in an ELISA-Based System
Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Zero Ho-Man Tse, Hui-Fang Liu, Song Lu, Jessica Wing-Man Ho, Michelle Hiu-Wai Kung, David Boyer Ramsden, Shu-Leong Ho
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074065
Abstract: Xenoestrogens are either natural or synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous estrogen. These compounds, such as bisphenol-A (BPA), and phthalates, are commonly found in plastic wares. Exposure to these compounds poses major risk to human health because of the potential to cause endocrine disruption. There is huge demand for a wide range of chemicals to be assessed for such potential for the sake of public health. Classical in vivo assays for endocrine disruption are comprehensive but time-consuming and require sacrifice of experimental animals. Simple preliminary in vitro screening assays can reduce the time and expense involved. We previously demonstrated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor (ER). Therefore, detecting corresponding changes of COMT expression in estrogen-responsive cells may be a useful method to estimate estrogenic effects of various compounds. We developed a novel cell-based ELISA to evaluate cellular response to estrogenicity by reduction of soluble-COMT expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells exposed to estrogenic compounds. In contrast to various existing methods that only detect bioactivity, this method elucidates direct physiological effect in a living cell in response to a compound. We validated our assay using three well-characterized estrogenic plasticizers - BPA, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Cells were exposed to either these plasticizers or 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen-depleted medium with or without an ER-antagonist, ICI 182,780, and COMT expression assayed. Exposure to each of these plasticizers (10-9-10-7M) dose-dependently reduced COMT expression (p<0.05), which was blocked by ICI 182,780. Reduction of COMT expression was readily detectable in cells exposed to picomolar level of E2, comparable to other in vitro assays of similar sensitivity. To satisfy the demand for in vitro assays targeting different cellular components, a cell-based COMT assay provides useful initial screening to supplement the current assessments of xenoestrogens for potential estrogenic activity.
Hsa-miRNA-765 as a Key Mediator for Inhibiting Growth, Migration and Invasion in Fulvestrant-Treated Prostate Cancer
Yuet-Kin Leung, Queeny Kwan-Yi Chan, Chi-Fai Ng, Fanny Man-Ting Ma, Ho-Man Tse, Ka-Fai To, Jodi Maranchie, Shuk-Mei Ho, Kin-Mang Lau
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098037
Abstract: Fulvestrant (ICI-182,780) has recently been shown to effectively suppress prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. But it is unclear whether microRNAs play a role in regulating oncogene expression in fulvestrant-treated prostate cancer. Here, this study reports hsa-miR-765 as the first fulvestrant-driven, ERβ-regulated miRNA exhibiting significant tumor suppressor activities like fulvestrant, against prostate cancer cell growth via blockage of cell-cycle progression at the G2/M transition, and cell migration and invasion possibly via reduction of filopodia/intense stress-fiber formation. Fulvestrant was shown to upregulate hsa-miR-765 expression through recruitment of ERβ to the 5′-regulatory-region of hsa-miR-765. HMGA1, an oncogenic protein in prostate cancer, was identified as a downstream target of hsa-miR-765 and fulvestrant in cell-based experiments and a clinical study. Both the antiestrogen and the hsa-miR-765 mimic suppressed HMGA1 protein expression. In a neo-adjuvant study, levels of hsa-miR-765 were increased and HMGA1 expression was almost completely lost in prostate cancer specimens from patients treated with a single dose (250 mg) of fulvestrant 28 days before prostatectomy. These findings reveal a novel fulvestrant signaling cascade involving ERβ-mediated transcriptional upregulation of hsa-miR-765 that suppresses HMGA1 protein expression as part of the mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor action of fulvestrant in prostate cancer.
Uncoupling Protein-4 (UCP4) Increases ATP Supply by Interacting with Mitochondrial Complex II in Neuroblastoma Cells
Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Jessica Wing-Man Ho, Ho-Man Tse, Danny Hon-Fai So, David Chi-Wai Yiu, Hui-Fang Liu, Koon-Ho Chan, Michelle Hiu-Wai Kung, David Boyer Ramsden, Shu-Leong Ho
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032810
Abstract: Mitochondrial uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4) protects against Complex I deficiency as induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), but how UCP4 affects mitochondrial function is unclear. Here we investigated how UCP4 affects mitochondrial bioenergetics in SH-SY5Y cells. Cells stably overexpressing UCP4 exhibited higher oxygen consumption (10.1%, p<0.01), with 20% greater proton leak than vector controls (p<0.01). Increased ATP supply was observed in UCP4-overexpressing cells compared to controls (p<0.05). Although state 4 and state 3 respiration rates of UCP4-overexpressing and control cells were similar, Complex II activity in UCP4-overexpressing cells was 30% higher (p<0.05), associated with protein binding between UCP4 and Complex II, but not that of either Complex I or IV. Mitochondrial ADP consumption by succinate-induced respiration was 26% higher in UCP4-overexpressing cells, with 20% higher ADP:O ratio (p<0.05). ADP/ATP exchange rate was not altered by UCP4 overexpression, as shown by unchanged mitochondrial ADP uptake activity. UCP4 overexpression retained normal mitochondrial morphology in situ, with similar mitochondrial membrane potential compared to controls. Our findings elucidate how UCP4 overexpression increases ATP synthesis by specifically interacting with Complex II. This highlights a unique role of UCP4 as a potential regulatory target to modulate mitochondrial Complex II and ATP output in preserving existing neurons against energy crisis.
Partial-state fidelity and quantum phase transitions induced by continuous level crossing
Ho-Man Kwok,Chun-Sing Ho,Shi-Jian Gu
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.062302
Abstract: The global-state fidelity cannot characterize those quantum phase transitions (QPTs) induced by continuous level crossing due to its collapse around each crossing point. In this paper, we take the isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model and the antiferromagnetic one-dimensional Heisenberg model as examples to show that the partial-state fidelity can signal such level-crossing QPTs. Extending to the thermodynamic limit we introduce the partial-state fidelity susceptibility and study its scaling behavior. The maximum of the partial-state fidelity susceptibility goes like $N$ for the LMG model and $N^3$ for the Heisenberg model.
Fidelity susceptibility in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising and XXZ models
Wing-Chi Yu,Ho-Man Kwok,Junpeng Cao,Shi-Jian Gu
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.021108
Abstract: We study the fidelity susceptibility in the two-dimensional(2D) transverse field Ising model and the 2D XXZ model numerically. It is found that in both models, the fidelity susceptibility as a function of the driving parameter diverges at the critical points. The validity of the fidelity susceptibility to signal for the quantum phase transition is thus verified in these two models. We also compare the scaling behavior of the extremum of the fidelity susceptibility to that of the second derivative of the ground state energy. From those results, the theoretical argument that fidelity susceptibility is a more sensitive seeker for a second order quantum phase transition is also testified in the two models.
Quantum criticality of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Model in terms of fidelity susceptibility
Ho-Man Kwok,Wen-Qiang Ning,Shi-Jian Gu,Hai-Qing Lin
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.032103
Abstract: We study the critical properties of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Model in terms of the fidelity susceptibility. By using the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, we obtain explicitly the critical exponent of the fidelity susceptibility around the second-order quantum phase transition point. Our results provide a rare analytical case for the fidelity susceptibility in describing the universality class in quantum critical behavior. The different critical exponents in two phases are non-trivial results, indicating the fidelity susceptibility is not always extensive.
Fidelity susceptibility, scaling, and universality in quantum critical phenomena
Shi-Jian Gu,Ho-Man Kwok,Wen-Qiang Ning,Hai-Qing Lin
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.245109
Abstract: We study fidelity susceptibility in one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model, and show that the fidelity susceptibility can be used to identify the universality class of the quantum phase transitions in this model. The critical exponents are found to be 0 and 2 for cases of half-filling and away from half-filling respectively.
A Comparison of Lex Bounds for Multiset Variables in Constraint Programming
Yat-Chiu Law,Jimmy Ho-Man Lee,May Hiu-Chun Woo,Toby Walsh
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Set and multiset variables in constraint programming have typically been represented using subset bounds. However, this is a weak representation that neglects potentially useful information about a set such as its cardinality. For set variables, the length-lex (LL) representation successfully provides information about the length (cardinality) and position in the lexicographic ordering. For multiset variables, where elements can be repeated, we consider richer representations that take into account additional information. We study eight different representations in which we maintain bounds according to one of the eight different orderings: length-(co)lex (LL/LC), variety-(co)lex (VL/VC), length-variety-(co)lex (LVL/LVC), and variety-length-(co)lex (VLL/VLC) orderings. These representations integrate together information about the cardinality, variety (number of distinct elements in the multiset), and position in some total ordering. Theoretical and empirical comparisons of expressiveness and compactness of the eight representations suggest that length-variety-(co)lex (LVL/LVC) and variety-length-(co)lex (VLL/VLC) usually give tighter bounds after constraint propagation. We implement the eight representations and evaluate them against the subset bounds representation with cardinality and variety reasoning. Results demonstrate that they offer significantly better pruning and runtime.
Removing Propagation Redundant Constraints in Redundant Modeling
Chiu Wo Choi,Jimmy Ho-Man Lee,Peter J. Stuckey
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: A widely adopted approach to solving constraint satisfaction problems combines systematic tree search with various degrees of constraint propagation for pruning the search space. One common technique to improve the execution efficiency is to add redundant constraints, which are constraints logically implied by others in the problem model. However, some redundant constraints are propagation redundant and hence do not contribute additional propagation information to the constraint solver. Redundant constraints arise naturally in the process of redundant modeling where two models of the same problem are connected and combined through channeling constraints. In this paper, we give general theorems for proving propagation redundancy of one constraint with respect to channeling constraints and constraints in the other model. We illustrate, on problems from CSPlib (http://www.csplib.org/), how detecting and removing propagation redundant constraints in redundant modeling can significantly speed up constraint solving.
Finite Domain Bounds Consistency Revisited
Chiu Wo Choi,Warwick Harvey,Jimmy Ho-Man Lee,Peter J. Stuckey
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: A widely adopted approach to solving constraint satisfaction problems combines systematic tree search with constraint propagation for pruning the search space. Constraint propagation is performed by propagators implementing a certain notion of consistency. Bounds consistency is the method of choice for building propagators for arithmetic constraints and several global constraints in the finite integer domain. However, there has been some confusion in the definition of bounds consistency. In this paper we clarify the differences and similarities among the three commonly used notions of bounds consistency.
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