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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461837 matches for " Zeina A Kanafani "
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Surgical Site Infections Following Spine Surgery: Eliminating the Controversies in the Diagnosis
Jad Chahoud,Zeina Kanafani,Souha S. Kanj
Frontiers in Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2014.00007
Abstract: Surgical site infection (SSI) following spine surgery is a dreaded complication with significant morbidity and economic burden. SSIs following spine surgery can be superficial, characterized by obvious wound drainage or deep-seated with a healed wound. Staphylococcus aureus remains the principal causal agent. There are certain pre-operative risk factors that increase the risk of SSI, mainly diabetes, smoking, steroids, and peri-operative transfusions. Additionally, intra-operative risk factors include surgical invasiveness, type of fusion, implant use, and traditional instead of minimally invasive approach. A high level of suspicion is crucial to attaining an early definitive diagnosis and initiating appropriate management. The most common presenting symptom is back pain, usually manifesting 2–4 weeks and up to 3 months after a spinal procedure. Scheduling a follow-up visit between weeks 2 and 4 after surgery is therefore necessary for early detection. Inflammatory markers are important diagnostic tools, and comparing pre-operative with post-operative levels should be done when suspecting SSIs following spine surgery. Particularly, serum amyloid A is a novel inflammatory marker that can expedite the diagnosis of SSIs. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the diagnostic modality of choice when suspecting a SSI following spine surgery. While 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is not widely used, it may be useful in challenging cases. Despite their low yield, blood cultures should be collected before initiating antibiotic therapy. Samples from wound drainage should be sent for Gram stain and cultures. When there is a high clinical suspicion of SSI and in the absence of superficial wound drainage, computed tomography-guided aspiration of paraspinal collections is warranted. Unless the patient is hemodynamically compromised, antibiotics should be deferred until proper specimens for culture are secured.
Genotypes and serotype distribution of macrolide resistant invasive and non- invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Lebanon
Nedal Taha, George F Araj, Rima H Wakim, Souha S Kanj, Zeina A Kanafani, Ahmad Sabra, Marie-Therese Khairallah, Farah J Nassar, Marwa Shehab, Maysa Baroud, Ghassan Dbaibo, Ghassan M Matar
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-11-2
Abstract: Forty four macrolide resistant and 21 macrolide susceptible S. pneumoniae clinical isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility according to CLSI guidelines (2008) and underwent molecular characterization. Serotyping of these isolates was performed by Multiplex PCR-based serotype deduction using CDC protocols. PCR amplification of macrolide resistant erm (encoding methylase) and mef (encoding macrolide efflux pump protein) genes was carried out.Among 44 isolates resistant to erythromycin, 35 were resistant to penicillin and 18 to ceftriaxone. Examination of 44 macrolide resistant isolates by PCR showed that 16 isolates harbored the erm(B) gene, 8 isolates harbored the mef gene, and 14 isolates harbored both the erm(B) and mef genes. There was no amplification by PCR of the erm(B) or mef genes in 6 isolates. Seven different capsular serotypes 2, 9V/9A,12F, 14,19A, 19F, and 23, were detected by multiplex PCR serotype deduction in 35 of 44 macrolide resistant isolates, with 19F being the most prevalent serotype. With the exception of serotype 2, all serotypes were invasive. Isolates belonging to the invasive serotypes 14 and 19F harbored both erm(B) and mef genes. Nine of the 44 macrolide resistant isolates were non-serotypable by our protocols.Macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae in Lebanon is mainly through target site modification but is also mediated through efflux pumps, with serotype 19F having dual resistance and being the most prevalent and invasive.Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. It is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens causing community acquired infections, most notably pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis [1,2]. Treatment of pneumococcal infections is becoming difficult due to the high prevalence of penicillin-resistant strains and to the rapid development of resistance to other antimicrobials including macrolides. These drugs are extensively used for the treat
L’injure dans la société libanaise Les mots, le sens
A?da Kanafani-Zahar
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.1203
Abstract: Dans la société libanaise, où l’organisation sociale, les pratiques de sociabilité et d’hospitalité, le sens de l’honneur, reposent sur une même culture, la culture arabe, chrétiens et musulmans éprouvent à l’égard de l’injure une même sensibilité. Ils puisent dans un même corpus sémantique, mais deux grandes sortes d’injure peuvent néanmoins être distinguées : l’injure double qui, en prenant pour cible l’honneur sexuel des femmes, la lignée, ou la religion, vise à la fois l’homme et son groupe d’appartenance, et l’injure simple qui ne vise que la personne, que ce soit par le procédé de la malédiction ou l’utilisation de qualificatifs péjoratifs. Demeure cependant le problème du rapport entre les mots et le sens, que les mots soient détournés de leur sens quand le contexte ne s’y prête pas, ou que le sens dépasse les mots et résiste aux stratégies d’évitement les plus diverses. In the Lebanese society, the social organisation, the practises of sociability and hospitality, the sense of honor, lie on the same culture, the arabic culture, christians and muslims have towards insults the same sensibility. They draw from the same semantic corpus, but two kinds of insults can nontheless be distinguised: the double insult, while taking for target the sexual honor of women, the lineage, or the religion, aims to reach the person as well as its group, and the simple insult that touches the person only, whether by means of malediction or the use of negative attributes. Remains the problem of the relationships between the words and the meaning, whether words are diverted from their meaning when the context is inappropriate, or whether the meaning goes beyond the words and resists to different strategies of avoidance.
Le Carême et le Ramadan : recréer le corps. Un cas libanais Lent and Ramadan : Recreating the Body in Lebanon
A?da Kanafani-Zahar
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2006, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.2988
Abstract: Accorder son corps aux exigences du sacré afin d’accueillir une ferveur religieuse d’une grande intensité est l’objectif du Grand Carême et du Ramadan. Dès lors, de nouvelles normes sont élaborées. Elles puisent leur légitimité dans un corpus de symboles fondé, pour le Carême, sur la couleur et le go t des aliments, le désir de nature, les privations volontaires et, pour le Ramadan, sur le bouleversement du rythme alimentaire. Dans les je nes chrétien et musulman tels qu’ils sont vécus à Hsoun, un village du Mont Liban, le lien entre temps alimentaire et temps de l’adoration est au plus fort. To bring into accord the body with the requirements of the sacred in order to enhance a religious fervour of great intensity is the aim of Lent and of Ramadan. New norms are set. They draw their legitimacy from a corpus of symbols based, for Lent, on the colour and taste of food, the desire for nature, voluntary privations, and for Ramadan, on the disruption on the food rhythm. In the Christian and Muslim fasts, as they are experienced in Hsoun, a village in Mount Lebanon, the relationship between the food time and the piety time is at its highest.
HACEK Infective Endocarditis: Characteristics and Outcomes from a Large, Multi-National Cohort
Stephen T. Chambers, David Murdoch, Arthur Morris, David Holland, Paul Pappas, Manel Almela, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Benito Almirante, Emilio Bouza, Davide Forno, Ana del Rio, Margaret M. Hannan, John Harkness, Zeina A. Kanafani, Tahaniyat Lalani, Selwyn Lang, Nigel Raymond, Kerry Read, Tatiana Vinogradova, Christopher W. Woods, Dannah Wray, G. Ralph Corey, Vivian H. Chu, International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) Investigators
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063181
Abstract: The HACEK organisms (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter species, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species) are rare causes of infective endocarditis (IE). The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with HACEK endocarditis (HE) in a large multi-national cohort. Patients hospitalized with definite or possible infective endocarditis by the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study in 64 hospitals from 28 countries were included and characteristics of HE patients compared with IE due to other pathogens. Of 5591 patients enrolled, 77 (1.4%) had HE. HE was associated with a younger age (47 vs. 61 years; p<0.001), a higher prevalence of immunologic/vascular manifestations (32% vs. 20%; p<0.008) and stroke (25% vs. 17% p = 0.05) but a lower prevalence of congestive heart failure (15% vs. 30%; p = 0.004), death in-hospital (4% vs. 18%; p = 0.001) or after 1 year follow-up (6% vs. 20%; p = 0.01) than IE due to other pathogens (n = 5514). On multivariable analysis, stroke was associated with mitral valve vegetations (OR 3.60; CI 1.34–9.65; p<0.01) and younger age (OR 0.62; CI 0.49–0.90; p<0.01). The overall outcome of HE was excellent with the in-hospital mortality (4%) significantly better than for non-HE (18%; p<0.001). Prosthetic valve endocarditis was more common in HE (35%) than non-HE (24%). The outcome of prosthetic valve and native valve HE was excellent whether treated medically or with surgery. Current treatment is very successful for the management of both native valve prosthetic valve HE but further studies are needed to determine why HE has a predilection for younger people and to cause stroke. The small number of patients and observational design limit inferences on treatment strategies. Self selection of study sites limits epidemiological inferences.
The jigsaw puzzle of sequence phenotype inference: Piecing together Shannon entropy, importance sampling, and Empirical Bayes
Zeina Shreif,Deborah A. Striegel,Vipul Periwal
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.06.010
Abstract: A nucleotide sequence 35 base pairs long can take 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 possible values. An example of systems biology datasets, protein binding microarrays, contain activity data from about 40000 such sequences. The discrepancy between the number of possible configurations and the available activities is enormous. Thus, albeit that systems biology datasets are large in absolute terms, they oftentimes require methods developed for rare events due to the combinatorial increase in the number of possible configurations of biological systems. A plethora of techniques for handling large datasets, such as Empirical Bayes, or rare events, such as importance sampling, have been developed in the literature, but these cannot always be simultaneously utilized. Here we introduce a principled approach to Empirical Bayes based on importance sampling, information theory, and theoretical physics in the general context of sequence phenotype model induction. We present the analytical calculations that underlie our approach. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of the approach on concrete examples, and demonstrate its efficacy by applying the theory to publicly available protein binding microarray transcription factor datasets and to data on synthetic cAMP-regulated enhancer sequences. As further demonstrations, we find transcription factor binding motifs, predict the activity of new sequences and extract the locations of transcription factor binding sites. In summary, we present a novel method that is efficient (requiring minimal computational time and reasonable amounts of memory), has high predictive power that is comparable with that of models with hundreds of parameters, and has a limited number of optimized parameters, proportional to the sequence length.
Recomenda??es quanto à amamenta??o na vigência de infec??o materna
Lamounier, Joel A.;Moulin, Zeina S.;Xavier, César C.;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572004000700010
Abstract: objective: to make a literature review on breastfeeding and maternal infectious diseases in order to contribute with knowledge and information that can aid the pediatrician to decide upon allowing infected mothers to breastfeed their babies or not. sources of data: lilacs and medline databases were searched for books, technical rules and articles on the issue of breastfeeding and infected mothers. summary of the findings: infected lactating mothers can transmit pathogenic agents to their infants. although breastfeeding protects the child it can also be a dangerous source of infection. maternal diseases caused by bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites may sometimes be transmitted via human milk. the literature points out that mothers infected with hiv and t-lymphotropic human viruses (type i) should not breastfeed. with other diseases a careful approach should be made, but, in general, breastfeeding is maintained. conclusion: the mother who is exposed to infectious diseases may transmit pathogenic agents through the human milk, attention should also be made to milk from milk banks. the healthcare provider must take his/her decision upon suspending breastfeeding or not, what can be distressful, once he/she has a fundamental role in promoting and stimulating breastfeeding.
Effects of Losartan vs. Enalapril on the Markers of Metabolic Syndrome
Zeina A. Al-Thanoon,Isam H. Mahmood
Oman Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: To compare the effects of losartan and enalapril on themarkers of metabolic syndrome.Methods: One hundred and twenty six newly diagnosedhypertensive patients having other markers of metabolicsyndrome participated in this study. The study was performed inthe department of pharmacology, college of medicine at Ibn-SinaTeaching Hospital in Mosul city, Iraq, during the period betweenDecember 2007 and June 2009. The patients were divided into 2main groups: 1) Losartan group: consisted of 60 patients, and 2)enalapril group: Consisted of 66 patients. Waist circumference,weight, Body mass index, blood pressure, serum glucoseconcentration, triglyceride and HDL-cholestrol were measuredbefore and after administration of therapy. The effects of therapywere assessed by statistically comparing the results before andafter the drug administration.Results: Comparison of waist circumference, blood pressure,FSG, triglycerides of the patients before drug administration(baseline data), with those of the controls showed a significantelevation, while HDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction.A significant reduction of waist circumference, BP, FSG and asignificant elevation of HDL-cholesterol were also noted aftertherapy with both losartan and enalapril.Conclusion: Both losartan and enalapril produced a significantreduction of markers of metabolic syndrome and may be regardedas effective drugs for treatment of hypertension in patients withmarkers of metabolic syndrome.
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2008,
Abstract: Daily advances in technology are restructuring the way we live, work, learn and interact. The rapid development of synchronous online venues available to distance education has lead to a heightened need for theory & practice in the effective use of these collaborative learning live venues. This paper is directed to faculty members who are already teaching synchronously online or who would like to start teaching synchronously online. It provides best practices, ideas, tips and tricks, and insights to foster successful learning experiences online and ways to think about online synchronous teaching differently than as a mere replicate of traditional campus-based instructional activities.
Micheline Labelle, Fran ois Rocher et Rachad Antonius, Immigration, diversité et sécurité: les associations arabo-musulmanes face à l'état au Canada et au Québec
Zeina Sleiman
The Canadian Journal of Sociology , 2009,
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