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This paper describes the application of principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the air pollutant index (API) within the seven selected Malaysian air monitoring stations in the southern region of Peninsular Malaysia based on seven years database (2005-2011). Feed-forward ANN was used as a prediction method. The feed-forward ANN analysis demonstrated that the rotated principal component scores (RPCs) were the best input parameters to predict API. From the 4 RPCs, only 10 (CO, O3, PM10, NO2, CH4, NmHC, THC, wind direction, humidity and ambient temp) out of 12 prediction variables were the most significant parameters to predict API. The results proved that the ANN method can be applied successfully as tools for decision making and problem solving for better atmospheric management.
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Letrozole versus Clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) with infertility. Methods: This was a prospective randomized trial involving 150 women with PCOS attending the Infertility Clinic at three hospitals in Malaysia. During the initial visit, anthropometric measurements and baseline investigations were performed. Patients were randomized to 5.0 mg Letrozole daily (75 patients) or 100 mg Clomiphene citrate daily (75 patients) from the fifth until the ninth day of menstruation. Serial transvaginal scans were performed to see the dominant follicles, endometrial thickness and number of follicles. Transvaginal scans were performed serially to look for evidence of ovulation. Results: The subjects were homogenously distributed. The difference between Letrozole and Clomiphene citrate for ovulation rate was 59 (78.7%) versus 40 (53.3%). Patients taking Letrozole exhibited a mean endometrial thickness (ET) at mid cycle of menses (Day 11-D14) of9.2 mm(SD ± 2.3) versus8.4 mm(SD ± 2.2) for patients taking Clomiphene citrate, and these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In terms of pregnancy rate, Letrozole facilitated pregnancy induction in 19 patients (25.3%) versus 12 patients (16.0%) for Clomiphene citrate; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.22). More dominant follicles exhibiting a monofollicular morphology were observed in patients treated with Letrozole compared to patients treated with Clomiphene citrate, with a monofollicular dominant follicle observed in 33 (46.5%) versus 20 (26.7%) patients, respectively. Conclusion: Letrozole provided a more efficient stimulation compared to Clomiphene citrate in terms of ovulation induction, thickening of the endometrial lining and achievement of a successful pregnancy. Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT015-77017.
of breast cancer can cause a significant anxiety in someone’s life. The care of
the breast cancer patient requires in many centres. The care of breast cancer patient is undertaken as a joint venture
between the surgeon, medical oncologist, radiotherapist, pathologist and allied
health professionals such as the clinical nurse specialist as well as
counsellors. This is a case of a 39-years-old Malay woman presented to HUSM with a history of
ulcerating breast lump with bloody pus discharge on the right breast. An
initial mammogram study showed lesion suspicious of malignancy, and histopathological
examination was consistent with invasive ductal carcinoma. She received
neoadjuvant chemotherapy before proceeding
to right modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance and immediate
chest wall reconstruction. Detailed discussion on the
diagnosis, treatment, surgical intervention and progress of the patient with reference to available literature reviews are presented.