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State and Islamic response to the AIDS in Indonesia
Hudriansyah Rahman, Zaki Faddad
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies , 2012,
Abstract: This paper explores the historical narrations of AIDS in Indonesia that shape its construction. It will focus on the relation between Governmental and Islamic responses to HIV/AIDS. In this research, we will focus on the governmental official commission on AIDS prevention (KPA) which is concern about HIV and AIDS and MUI as a government Islamic institution. This paper will argued that the responses of both parties in the Indonesian “narrations” of HIV/AIDS can influence the practice of AIDS prevention. Government ways to treat AIDS in Indonesia have changed overtime in line with the development of medical and social work efforts to cope with the problem of HIV/AIDS. However the Islamic institution response in Indonesia does not change anymore and seems not to have seriously attention in the issue of HIV/AIDS, it can be look from the unchanging MUI’s fatwa which is limited the problem of AIDS solely as morality problem.
Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Arid Region: The Case New Urbanized Zone, Northeast Cairo, Egypt  [PDF]
Rafat Zaki, Abotalib Zaki, Saad Ahmed
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2011.33015
Abstract: The spatial characteristics of land cover are useful for understanding the various impacts of human activity on the overall ecological conditions of the urban environment. The multi-temporal Landsat images (TM) between the years of 1990 and 2003 were used together with the Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques to evaluate the environmental changes in the area around Gabal El Hamza and the surrounding urban expansion in the new urban cities at the northeast side of the Greater Cairo by using the post classification change detection technique and field investigation. Five major units were determined including: urban, cultivated land, Holocene sand dunes, Oligocene basalt and Miocene–Pleistocene sediments. The cultivated cover changed from 89.6 to 150.4 km2 for the years of 1990 and 2003 respectively. The urban area increased from 49.5 to 120.9 km2 with a great value of change reached 71.3 km2 . The basaltic exposures changed from 3 to 3.75 km2 . The sandy cover decreased from 68.9 to 60.1 km2 and the exposures of the rock units changed from 904.8 to 780.8 km2 with removing 124 km2 in 13 years. The total accuracy of the Landsat-derived land cover data was 95 and 92% for the years 1990 and 2003 respectively. Landsat TM thermal infrared data indicated that the surface temperature was strongly affected by the land cover changes.
Application of Hyperspectral Band Elimination Technique to PVT Images of Composite Structures  [PDF]
Mahmoud Zaki Iskandarani
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410090
Abstract: A new approach to NDT of composite structures using Band Elimination of the analyzed image index by Hyperspectral image analysis approach is presented and discussed. The matrix Band Elimination technique allows the monitoring and analysis of a components structure based on Filtering of bands and correlation between sequentially pulsed thermal images and their indices. The technique produces several matrices resulting from frame deviation and pixel redistribution calculations for intelligent classification and property prediction. The obtained results proved the technique to be capable of identifying damaged components with ability to model various types of damage under different conditions.
Optical Measurements and Speckle Photography for Thermotropic Liquid Crystals Mixtures  [PDF]
Ayman A. Zaki
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44073
Abstract:

In this work, an experimental approach of speckle photography was used for measuring birefringence of thermotropic liquid crystals mixtures at different wavelengths in the visible region. Also the dispersion relations were investigated. The values of the refractive indices were measured for these mixtures of thermotropic liquid crystals in isotropic and liquid crystal phase at different wavelengths. The effect of the end group of these LCs used on the values of birefringence was investigated and discussed.

A Novel Approach to Disqualify Datasets Using Accumulative Statistical Spread Map with Neural Networks (ASSM-NN)  [PDF]
Mahmoud Zaki Iskandarani
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2015.73013
Abstract: A novel approach to detect and filter out an unhealthy dataset from a matrix of datasets is developed, tested, and proved. The technique employs a new type of self organizing map called Accumulative Statistical Spread Map (ASSM) to establish the destructive and negative effect a dataset will have on the rest of the matrix if stayed within that matrix. The ASSM is supported by training a neural network engine, which will determine which dataset is responsible for its inability to learn, classify and predict. The carried out experiments proved that a neural system was not able to learn in the presence of such an unhealthy dataset that possessed some deviated characteristics, even though it was produced under the same conditions and through the same process as the rest of the datasets in the matrix, and hence, it should be disqualified, and either removed completely or transferred to another matrix. Such novel approach is very useful in pattern recognition of datasets and features that do not belong to their source and could be used as an effective tool to detect suspicious activities in many areas of secure filing, communication and data storage.
Disparity in Intelligent Classification of Data Sets Due to Dominant Pattern Effect (DPE)  [PDF]
Mahmoud Zaki Iskandarani
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2015.73007
Abstract: A hypothesis of the existence of dominant pattern that may affect the performance of a neural based pattern recognition system and its operation in terms of correct and accurate classification, pruning and optimization is assumed, presented, tested and proved to be correct. Two sets of data subjected to the same ranking process using four main features are used to train a neural network engine separately and jointly. Data transformation and statistical pre-processing are carried out on the datasets before inserting them into the specifically designed multi-layer neural network employing Weight Elimination Algorithm with Back Propagation (WEA-BP). The dynamics of classification and weight elimination process is correlated and used to prove the dominance of one dataset. The presented results proved that one dataset acted aggressively towards the system and displaced the first dataset making its classification almost impossible. Such modulation to the relationships among the selected features of the affected dataset resulted in a mutated pattern and subsequent re-arrangement in the data set ranking of its members.
Improving the OCR of Low Contrast, Small Fonts, Dark Background Forms Using Correlated Zoom and Resolution Technique (CZRT)  [PDF]
Mahmoud Zaki Iskandarani
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2015.33005
Abstract: Many formal institutions, companies, hospitals, laboratories need some time to exchange hand signed reports through modern communication means such as Fax, E-mails, and others. A problem is faced due to the quality of both scanned documents and originally used paper, which results in problems in converting such images to text. In addition, font type and size, contrast and background darkness have an adverse effect on the accuracy of the resulted text. Thus, an investigation into the relationship between scanned document zoom and scanning resolution in Dots per Inch (DPI) for a special case and type of scanned forms is carried out to enable design of an algorithm that takes into account such cases. It is found that a much higher level of zooming and resolution is needed to achieve acceptable recognition for the special case of dark, low contrast, small font forms. It is also found that the optimum zooming level is set by the number of recognized words as they are more difficult to learn and analyze.
Resilience of a high latitude Red Sea corals to extreme temperature  [PDF]
Mohamed Zaki Moustafa, Zaki Daniel Moustafa, Mary Sue Moustafa
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.33028
Abstract:

Our research objective was to expand the very limited knowledgebase pertaining to the ecology of fringing coral reefs in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Specifically, determine dominant coral species and investigate why this reef is capable of surviving at such a high-latitude \"\"\"\" and extreme harsh environment. Data collection included annual reef surveys, randomized quadrat sampling, five permanent video transects and in situ seawater temperature. Of the known Gulf of Suez 35 taxa, only six (Acropora humilis, A. microclados, A. hemprichii, Litophyton arboretum, Stylophora pistillata, Porites columna, and P. plantulata), compose 94% of the reef's coral cover. Coral dominance across species shifted drastically during the study period. However, the six coral dominance remained unchanged, while some decreased others increased. These six coral taxa regularly experience \"\" daily changes in seawater temperature and seasonal variations that exceed \"\" These extreme temperatures variation and the fact that only six coral taxa dominance remained unchanged, suggest that these corals may have developed a mechanism to cope with extreme seawater temperatures as evidenced by their continued growth and survival over the study period. We speculate that species dominance shift occurred largely as a result of a local oil spill rather than exposure to extreme temperatures. Further scrutiny of these species and the mechanisms by which they are able to thrive is recommended, as they hold the potential to benefit other coral communities as a resilient transplant species and model for understanding coral survivability in extreme environmental conditions.

Low-Temperature Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Mn0.2Ni0.8Fe2O4 by Oxalate Precursor Route  [PDF]
Mahmoud M. Hessien, Zaki I. Zaki, Al-Qahtani Mohsen
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2013.31A001
Abstract:

Manganese nickel ferrite (Mn0.2Ni0.8Fe2O4) powder was synthesized through oxalate precursor route. The effect of annealing temperature (400 - 1100) on the formation, crystalline size, morphology and magnetic properties was systematically studied. The resultant powders were investigated by thermal analyzer (TG-DTG-DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Based on thermal analysis results, the oxalate mixture decomposed thermally in multisteps weight loss up to about 680. XRD indicated that Mn0.2Ni0.8Fe2O4 formed at much lower annealing temperature (≤400) but contained α-Fe2O3 impurity. The hematite phase decreased by increasing the annealing temperature. The lattice parameters were increased with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000.

Detection of meta - and ortho -cleavage dioxygenases in bacterial phenol-degraders
Sahar Zaki
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2006,
Abstract: In the last five years, in our lab, several bacterial genera capable of degrading phenol as sole carbon source were isolated from different Egyptian ecosystems. Phenol mineralization using these isolates was ranged from 55% to 0.4%. In the present work, randomly chosen representative strains; W-17, DF4 (Acinetobacter), Sea-8 (Stenotrophomonas), W-6 (Klebsiella), S-5 (Bacillus) and W-15 (Ralstonia) were analyzed for the type of ring-cleavage (ortho or meta) dioxygenase physiologically induced during growth in the presence of phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. The specific activities of the phenol-degrading enzymes phenol hydroxylase, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase were investigated. In addition, whole-cell dioxygenases activities of the examined isolates were determined. Out of the results, only the Acinetobacter strains W-17 and DF-4 showed activity with the enzymes phenol hydroxylase and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase, which responsible for phenol degradation through ortho-cleavage pathway. In contrast, isolates S-5, Sea-8, W-6, W-15 and Pla-1 showed activity with the enzyme catalyzing the second step in the phenol degradation meta-cleavage pathway, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. On the basis of our previous and present analysis, the investigated isolates are considered to have a good potential for application in remediation of phenol contaminated environments and industrial wastewater. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 10 (3) 2006: 75-81
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