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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9805 matches for " Zahoor Ahmad Dar "
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Breeding Strategies for Improving Rice Yield—A Review  [PDF]
Mudasir Hafiz Khan, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Sher Ahmad Dar
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.65046
Abstract: An increase in productivity is always one of the main goals of any crop breeding program including rice. However, many goals can be identified for this crop varying in importance from region to region, country to country, and even within a given country. Increase in grain yield potential is the major goal of almost all rice breeders programs. The major impacts are related to the development of new strategies to increase the genetic grain yield potential of the varieties. Rice breeders have been very successful in improving the crop. Some milestones are the contribution to the green revolution with the semi-dwarf varieties, the new rice plant type and hybrid rice. The main breeding method used to improve rice is the pedigree, but development of hybrids and population improvement are added to the breeder’s portfolio. Breeders have been taking advantage of biotechnology tools to enhance their breeding capacity; however, many programs are still struggling on how to integrate them into the breeding programs and how to balance the allocation of resources between conventional and modern tools.
Status and strategies in breeding for rust resistance in wheat  [PDF]
Mudasir Hafiz Khan, Asifa Bukhari, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Syed Mudasir Rizvi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.46042

Wheat along with rice and maize is fulfilling half of the calories demands of the world. Global Wheat production has increased tremendously since green revolution in 1960’s and helped in minimizing hunger and malnutrition. Developing countries, which consume 60% of the global wheat production, have shown a higher yield increase than the developed countries in the past [1]. It was driven by the hunger prevalence in these countries and was attributable to the introduction of high yielding and rusted resistant semi dwarf varieties developed under the collaborative efforts of International and National research systems during the last 50 years. Whereas, climate change and the emergence of new pests and diseases are threatening the food sustainability. The evolution of new races of disease pathogens like stem rust (Ug 99) is of serious concern. In order to feed the ever increasing population we have to increase wheat production at the rate 1.6% which can be achieved by developing high yielding varieties having a good tolerance level for biotic and abiotic stresses.

Mass Limit of Neutron Star  [PDF]
Jehangir Ahmad Dar
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.42036

The mass limit of neutron star has still remained a mystery. The existing Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation for calculating the limit always gives different values, by introducing different assumptions and having been predicted like 0.7 Mo, 3.2 Mo, 3.6 Mo, where Mo = 1.98 × 1030 Kg. There is a need of some better technique to adopt other than TOV relation to seek out the value. In this paper, a new relation between the mass of the collapsing star and its average density ρ has been derived and used to calculate the limit of neutron star. The conditions in radii between Schwarz Child’s radius and the actual radius of the collapsing star have been introduced to calculate the mass of star above which it will transform into a black hole and below it to a neutron star. A new constant, JN = 8.53707554

Novel Adder Circuits Based On Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata (QCA)  [PDF]
Firdous Ahmad, Ghulam Mohiuddin Bhat, Peer Zahoor Ahmad
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2014.56016

Quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA) is a novel nanotechnology that provides a very different computation platform than traditional CMOS, in which polarization of electrons indicates the digital information. This paper demonstrates designing combinational circuits based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology, which offers a way to implement logic and all interconnections with only one homogeneous layer of cells. In this paper, the authors have proposed a novel design of XOR gate. This model proves designing capabilities of combinational circuits that are compatible with QCA gates within nano-scale. Novel adder circuits such as half adders, full adders, which avoid the fore, mentioned noise paths, crossovers by careful clocking organization, have been proposed. Experiment results show that the performance of proposed designs is more efficient than conventional designs. The modular layouts are verified with the freely available QCA Designer tool.

Predicting Level of Development for Different Countries
Zahoor Ahmad,Aysha Saleem
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n11p15
Abstract: It is well evidenced that development is a crucial aspect of any country. The demand of a country to be developed, it is necessary to concentrate on other aspects of economy like social and political development rather than just economic growth. In this paper our basic objective is to develop the model to predict the country’s development level on the bases of some social, economic and political indicators and also investigate the role of these indicators on development of a country. These indicators are primarily related to economic, health, education and governance. The development of a country is considered as categorical variable, the categories are already defined by United Nations Development Program (UNDP). These categories (highly developed, developed, developing and under developed) are based on Human Development Index (HDI). The data for this study is obtained for 186 countries from World Bank (WB) and UNDP for the year of 2010. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network Model is used for predicting the country’s level of development on the basis of economic, health, education and governance indicators, and the relative importance of these indicators in prediction. Our results show that the indicators; health, education and governance have greater effect on countries development level as compare to the economic indicators. From this investigation, it is suggested that developing and under developed countries should also concentrate on the health, education and governance to improve their development level rather than only increasing the economic indicators.
Implementation of Parallel Synchronization Method of Generators for Power & Cost Saving in University of Gujrat  [PDF]
Uzma Amin, Ghulam Ahmad, Sumbal Zahoor, Fariha Durrani
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2014.610027
Abstract: In the current economic and political scenario of Pakistan where new projects of Electrical generation seems impossible, one should adopt such means so as to minimize the power consumption via load management. In this paper a relatively better Electrical power system is proposed for University of Gujrat (UOG) power system. UOG runs its all generators whether it is full load or merely a load of 20 percent as a standby power. It is suggested that if generators system is synchronized and connected in parallel, it can not only minimize the cost, number of personnel required but also increase the reliability of the system. ETAP software is used for simulation and results show that by adopting this method generation cost can be reduced up to 30 percent which is indeed a huge figure. Losses and cable parameters were calculated using this software and found this proposal quite feasible.
Varietal Reaction of Cucumber against Cucumber mosaic virus  [PDF]
Asma Akbar, Zahoor Ahmad, Farzana Begum,   Ubairah, Neelam Raees
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67090
Abstract: Family Cucurbitaceae is primarily found in the warmer regions of the world. It is the major family for economically important species, particularly edible fruits. In Pakistan cucurbits occupies an area of 28,600 ha with a very low production in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa due to many biotic and abiotic stresses. The reason is also the lack of growers’ awareness about the diseases and the cultural practices adopted to provide favorable environment for development of epidemics. Viral diseases such as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) cause losses as high as 100%. Various control strategies are being used to control CMV. The aim of the current study was to screen out different verities and to find the most resistant one against CMV. CMV isolate was collected from farmer’s field at the site of TaruJaba during a survey of cucurbit crops. The identity of the virus was confirmed through DAS-ELISA using diagnostic kit (ADGEN, UK). Seventeen cucumber germplasm seeds were sown in earthen pots in which fourteen were germinated and exhibited characteristics symptoms of the virus while none of them showed resistance against CMV. Symptoms’ expression was delayed in summer green and local green till 12 days post inoculation. While in khyber, Diamond, VEGAF1 and Yousaf, symptoms started to appear soon after inoculation categorizing them as highly susceptible. No resistance is found in available commercial germplasm, so more germplasm from different area of Pakistan should be tested for resistance against CMV. If no resistance is found locally imported, germplasm can be evaluated for a source of resistance against the prevalent isolates of CMV.
Analysis of In Vitro Effects of Sex Steroids on Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Zahoor Ahmad Pampori,Sujata Pandita
Veterinary Medicine International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/139589
Abstract: Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly ( ). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 than day 0 of estrous cycle. Progesterone inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, and inhibition was directly related to the dose, in all groups of either sex. Testosterone did not inhibit proliferation at any dose level and did not show any consistent and lucid effects on lymphocyte proliferation. Present study revealed that buffalo lymphocytes produce appreciable amounts of NO in culture system after treatment with estradiol. Significantly high levels of NO in culture supernatant were found in prepubertal buffalo calves and least in post pubertal buffaloes, which had an inverse relation with lymphocyte proliferation in presence of estradiol. NO in culture supernatant was high at the lowest dose of progesterone which was proportional to the lymphocyte proliferation when treated with progesterone. No significant difference in NO culture supernatant was observed between different concentrations of testosterone treatment. 1. Introduction The sex steroids are in use for the last more than a millennium to correct reproductive disorders and augment reproductive efficiency in animals. However, it has been increasingly apparent that the effects of sex hormones extend far beyond their predominant role in sexual differentiation and reproduction and are now being realised as integral signalling modulators of mammalian immune system. Sexual dimorphism in disease incidence and host response in wide range of animal species provides an indirect evidence of role of sexual hormones in immune modulation [1–3]. Immunological evidence suggests that female sex hormones play a role in the aetiology and course of chronic inflammatory diseases [4]. The number and activity of immune cells in reproductive tract of animals and humans vary significantly throughout the phases of the reproductive cycle and are believed to be controlled by changes in the levels of estradiol and progesterone hormones [5–7]. Ramadan et al. [8] in sheep and Wulster-Radcliffe et al. [9] in gilts have reported higher resistance to uterine infections at oestrus and least during luteal phase. Lymphocyte proliferation response, a
Anesthesia and sedation in pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures: A review
Abdul Q Dar,Zahoor A Shah
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy , 2010,
Abstract: Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedure has become an essential modality for evaluation and treatment of GI diseases. Intravenous (IV) sedation and General Anesthesia (GA) have both been employed to minimize discomfort and provide amnesia. Both these procedures require, at the very least, monitoring of the level of consciousness, pulmonary ventilation, oxygenation and hemodynamics. Although GI endoscopy is considered safe, the procedure has a potential for complications. Increased awareness of the complications associated with sedation during GI endoscopy in children, and involving the anesthesiologists in caring for these children, may be optimal for safety. Belonging to a younger age group, having a higher ASA class and undergoing IV sedation were identified as risk factors for developing complications. Reported adverse events included inadequate sedation, low oxygen saturation, airway obstruction, apnea needing bag mask ventilation, excitement and agitation, hemorrhage and perforation. A complication rate of 1.2% was associated with procedures performed under GA, as compared to 3.7% of complications associated with IV sedation. IV sedation was seen to be independently associated with a cardiopulmonary complication rate 5.3% times higher when compared to GA. GA can therefore be considered safer and more effective in providing comfort and amnesia.
Varietal Performance for Yield Potentials under Different Row Spacings of Nicotiana tabacum L.
Saeed Ahmad Baloch,Zahoor Ahmad Soomro
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the varietal cum row spacing effect on the productivity of tabacco varieties viz. R-5, R-9, bubaki, sindi achho, R-6 and R-swabi as main plot and row spacing i.e., 60 and 75 cm as sub plot at Tandojam. It was observed that there was a significant (P<0.05) difference among tabacco varieties and row spacings. The variety R-5 was late maturing with highest yield of 958.33 and 1027.77 kg ha-1 at 60 and 75 cm row spacings, followed by R-swabi (888.88 kg ha-1) at both row spacing, this is due to the plant with thicker stem and broader leaves.
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