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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209241 matches for " Zachary L. Hickman "
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Complement Inhibition as a Proposed Neuroprotective Strategy following Cardiac Arrest
Brad E. Zacharia,Zachary L. Hickman,Bartosz T. Grobelny,Peter A. DeRosa,Andrew F. Ducruet,E. Sander Connolly
Mediators of Inflammation , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/124384
Abstract: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a devastating disease process with neurological injury accounting for a disproportionate amount of the morbidity and mortality following return of spontaneous circulation. A dearth of effective treatment strategies exists for global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (GCI/R) injury following successful resuscitation from OHCA. Emerging preclinical as well as recent human clinical evidence suggests that activation of the complement cascade plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GCI/R injury following OHCA. In addition, it is well established that complement inhibition improves outcome in both global and focal models of brain ischemia. Due to the profound impact of GCI/R injury following OHCA, and the relative lack of effective neuroprotective strategies for this pathologic process, complement inhibition provides an exciting opportunity to augment existing treatments to improve patient outcomes. To this end, this paper will explore the pathophysiology of complement-mediated GCI/R injury following OHCA.
Complement Inhibition Promotes Endogenous Neurogenesis and Sustained Anti-Inflammatory Neuroprotection following Reperfused Stroke
Andrew F. Ducruet, Brad E. Zacharia, Sergey A. Sosunov, Paul R. Gigante, Mason L. Yeh, Justin W. Gorski, Marc L. Otten, Richard Y. Hwang, Peter A. DeRosa, Zachary L. Hickman, Paulina Sergot, E. Sander Connolly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038664
Abstract: Background and Purpose The restoration of blood-flow following cerebral ischemia incites a series of deleterious cascades that exacerbate neuronal injury. Pharmacologic inhibition of the C3a-receptor ameliorates cerebral injury by attenuating post-ischemic inflammation. Recent reports also implicate C3a in the modulation of tissue repair, suggesting that complement may influence both injury and recovery at later post-ischemic time-points. Methods To evaluate the effect of C3a-receptor antagonism on post-ischemic neurogenesis and neurological outcome in the subacute period of stroke, transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult male C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple regimens of a C3a receptor antagonist (C3aRA). Results Low-dose C3aRA administration during the acute phase of stroke promotes neuroblast proliferation in the subventricular zone at 7 days. Additionally, the C3a receptor is expressed on T-lymphocytes within the ischemic territory at 7 days, and this cellular infiltrate is abrogated by C3aRA administration. Finally, C3aRA treatment confers robust histologic and functional neuroprotection at this delayed time-point. Conclusions Targeted complement inhibition through low-dose antagonism of the C3a receptor promotes post-ischemic neuroblast proliferation in the SVZ. Furthermore, C3aRA administration suppresses T-lymphocyte infiltration and improves delayed functional and histologic outcome following reperfused stroke. Post-ischemic complement activation may be pharmacologically manipulated to yield an effective therapy for stroke.
Proposed Methods and Endpoints for Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI) on Fish Communities/Populations in Tennessee River Reservoirs
Gary D. Hickman,Mary L. Brown
The Scientific World Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2002.216
Abstract:
On Merging Cover Inequalities for Multiple Knapsack Problems  [PDF]
Randal Hickman, Todd Easton
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2015.44014
Abstract:

This paper describes methods to merge two cover inequalities and also simultaneously merge multiple cover inequalities in a multiple knapsack instance. Theoretical results provide conditions under which merged cover inequalities are valid. Polynomial time algorithms are created to find merged cover inequalities. A computational study demonstrates that merged inequalities improve the solution times for benchmark multiple knapsack instances by about 9% on average over CPLEX with default settings.

A GIS Based Approach to Back Trajectory Analysis and Mass Concentration & Dispositions of Aerosols in Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Zachary Misiani, Yin Lun, Shengjie Niu, Jingjing Lü, Luyao Zhang
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.72009
Abstract: The origins and pathways of atmospheric aerosols in Kenya are examined in Nairobi for the three years (2015-2017) using HYSPLIT model and meteorological data. Aerosol concentrations in Kenya depended on the frequency of the air mass from the northeastern Asian Continent and southeastern Madagascar Island. There was a direct correlation of more pollutants during dry and hot seasons (JJA) of the year. To study the reasons for the seasonal variations, the origins of the air mass flowing to Nairobi were analyzed by backward air mass trajectory analysis. Monthly variations revealed that aerosols are transported from different directions due to variation of winds flowing and peak values were during July because of the increased emissions due to higher temperature and stronger solar radiation during heating, while the lowest value found in April was probably due to rain wash.
How Human Tumor Viruses Make Use of Autophagy
Zachary L. Pratt,Bill Sugden
Cells , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/cells1030617
Abstract: Viruses commandeer regulatory pathways of their hosts to optimize their success as cellular parasites. The human tumor viruses, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) all affect autophagy for their own ends. EBV and KSHV regulate it during latent infections, a phase when no progeny virus is produced, while HBV and HCV use autophagy to promote their productive infections. Here we shall compare and contrast how these human tumor viruses regulate autophagy and what they gain by the appropriation of this cellular pathway.
The influence of group decision making on indecisiveness-related decisional confidence
Andrea L. Patalano,Zachary LeClair
Judgment and Decision Making , 2011,
Abstract: Indecisiveness is an individual difference measure of chronic difficulty and delay in decision making. Indecisiveness is associated with low decisional confidence and distinct patterns of pre-choice information search behavior. The present study explored whether the confidence levels and search behaviors associated with individual indecisiveness also emerge in group decision making contexts. In this study, 97 decisive and indecisive participants were assigned to make a decision individually or in a homogenous three-person group. Indecisiveness score was found to predict participant decisional confidence in the individual condition but not in the group condition, with group participants being overall more confident than individuals. Similar results were obtained for other related measures of participants' perceptions of the decision task. Surprisingly, no indecisiveness-related differences in information search were found, suggesting that other aspects of the group process contribute to increased confidence. The results provide initial evidence that indecisiveness does not influence group decision making and that, especially for indecisive individuals, working in groups may be a way to boost decisional confidence.
Reaction of Oxidized CuZnSOD with Polyphenols  [PDF]
Jack S. Summers, Benjamin Hickman, Megan E. Arrington, Bradley S. Stadelman, Julia L. Brumaghim, Michelle R. Yost, Jeffrey D. Schmitt, Mariah Hornby, Stacy Sprague
Natural Science (NS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2016.88041
Abstract: Several polyphenolic compounds, including twelve flavonols and a variety of lower molecular weight compounds were found to diminish the effects of CuZnSOD on NMR relaxation of fluoride ion in a pH and concentration dependent manner. While we originally thought the effect arose from binding of the compounds to the enzyme active site, several lines of evidence indicated that active polyphenols reduced the paramagnetic copper(II) form of the enzyme to the diamagnetic copper(I) form, thereby giving false positive indications of enzyme inhibition in the NMR assay. First, docking experiments failed to provide a satisfactory explanation of the SAR. Second, effects on the enzyme’s EPR spectrum indicated that catechols could bind the active site copper leading to enzyme reduction. Third, while these reactions did not proceed to completion in aerobic solution, they did so under inert atmosphere. Fourth, experiments employing superoxide producing compounds demonstrated that loss of NMR activity did not prevent the enzyme from redox cycling. Thus, while the polyphenols appeared to inhibit the enzyme in the NMR assay, the compounds did not inhibit the enzyme’s reactions with superoxide.
What is a prisoner of war for?
J Hickman
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2008,
Abstract: This article presents a conceptual map of the purposes served by continuing custody of prisoners of war and captured non-combatants. Morally legitimate and non-controversial purposes include preventing prisoners of war from rejoining their comrades-in-arms, preventing both prisoners of war and captured non-combatants from giving material support to combatants still in the field, facilitating orderly release and repatriation at the end of hostilities, and the prosecution for war crimes. Morally illegitimate purposes include punishment, exploitation as conscript labour, recruitment or conscription as combatants, exploitation for intelligence, display as proof of victory, and ideological indoctrination. Analysis of historical cases illustrating each purpose reveal that continuing custody is often motivated by multiple purposes, both legitimate and illegitimate. What explains adoption of multiple and illegitimate purposes for continuing custody? Prisoners are available for legitimate and illegitimate purposes because neither elites nor masses within the captor state typically view prisoners as members of the moral community.1 Continuing custody does not alter the perceived status of the captured as aliens who cannot be intuitively invested with expectations of reciprocity. This suggests both ending custody as soon as legitimate purposes are served and bringing the captured within the moral community while in continuing captivity. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies Vol. 36 (2) 2008: pp. 19-35
WHAT IS A PRISONER OF WAR FOR?
John Hickman
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/36-2-50
Abstract: This article presents a conceptual map of the purposes served by continuing custody of prisoners of war and captured non-combatants. Morally legitimate and non-controversial purposes include preventing prisoners of war from rejoining their comrades-in-arms, preventing both prisoners of war and captured non-combatants from giving material support to combatants still in the field, facilitating orderly release and repatriation at the end of hostilities, and the prosecution for war crimes. Morally illegitimate purposes include punishment, exploitation as conscript labour, recruitment or conscription as combatants, exploitation for intelligence, display as proof of victory, and ideological indoctrination. Analysis of historical cases illustrating each purpose reveal that continuing custody is often motivated by multiple purposes, both legitimate and illegitimate. What explains adoption of multiple and illegitimate purposes for continuing custody? Prisoners are available for legitimate and illegitimate purposes because neither elites nor masses within the captor state typically view prisoners as members of the moral community.1 Continuing custody does not alter the perceived status of the captured as aliens who cannot be intuitively invested with expectations of reciprocity. This suggests both ending custody as soon as legitimate purposes are served and bringing the captured within the moral community while in continuing captivity.
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