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Exercise Protects against Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance through Downregulation of Protein Kinase Cβ in Mice
Xiaoquan Rao, Jixin Zhong, Xiaohua Xu, Brianna Jordan, Santosh Maurya, Zachary Braunstein, Tse-Yao Wang, Wei Huang, Sudha Aggarwal, Muthu Periasamy, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Kamal Mehta, Qinghua Sun
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081364
Abstract: Physical exercise is an important and effective therapy for diabetes. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance, but the role of PKCβ in exercise-induced improvements in insulin resistance is completely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of PKCβ in exercise-attenuated insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. PKCβ-/- and wild-type mice were fed a HFD with or without exercise training. PKC protein expression, body and tissue weight change, glucose and insulin tolerance, metabolic rate, mitochondria size and number, adipose inflammation, and AKT activation were determined to evaluate insulin sensitivity and metabolic changes after intervention. PKCβ expression decreased in both skeletal muscle and liver tissue after exercise. Exercise and PKCβ deficiency can alleviate HFD-induced insulin resistance, as evidenced by improved insulin tolerance. In addition, fat accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by HFD were also ameliorated by both exercise and PKCβ deficiency. On the other hand, exercise had little effect on PKCβ-/- mice. Further, our data indicated improved activation of AKT, the downstream signal molecule of insulin, in skeletal muscle and liver of exercised mice, whereas PKCβ deficiency blunted the difference between sedentary and exercised mice. These results suggest that downregulation of PKCβ contributes to exercise-induced improvement of insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice.
Laboratory Driven, Lean-to-Adaptive Prototyping in Parallel for Web Software Project Identification and Application Development in Health Science Research  [PDF]
Zachary Dwight, Alexa Barnes
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.52010
Abstract: Clinical research laboratories, bioinformatics core facilities, and health science organizations often rely on heavy planning based software development models to propose, build, and distribute software as a consumable product. Projects in non-agile software life cycles tend to have rigid “plan-design-build” milestones, increasing the amount of time needed for software development completion. Though the classic software development approach is needed for large-scale and organizational projects, clinical research laboratories can expedite software development while maintaining quality by using lean prototyping as a condition of project advancement to a committed adaptive software development cycle. Software projects benefit from an agile methodology due to the active and changing requirements often guided by experimental data driven models. We describe a lean to adaptive method used in parallel with laboratory bench work to develop quality software quickly that meets the requirements of a fast-paced research environment and reducing time to production, providing immediate value to the end user, and limiting unnecessary development practices in favor of results.
Data Stream Subspace Clustering for Anomalous Network Packet Detection  [PDF]
Zachary Miller, Wei Hu
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.33027
Abstract: As the Internet offers increased connectivity between human beings, it has fallen prey to malicious users who exploit its resources to gain illegal access to critical information. In an effort to protect computer networks from external attacks, two common types of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are often deployed. The first type is signature-based IDSs which can detect intrusions efficiently by scanning network packets and comparing them with human-generated signatures describing previously-observed attacks. The second type is anomaly-based IDSs able to detect new attacks through modeling normal network traffic without the need for a human expert. Despite this advantage, anomaly-based IDSs are limited by a high false-alarm rate and difficulty detecting network attacks attempting to blend in with normal traffic. In this study, we propose a StreamPreDeCon anomaly-based IDS. StreamPreDeCon is an extension of the preference subspace clustering algorithm PreDeCon designed to resolve some of the challenges associated with anomalous packet detection. Using network packets extracted from the first week of the DARPA '99 intrusion detection evaluation dataset combined with Generic Http, Shellcode and CLET attacks, our IDS achieved 94.4% sensitivity and 0.726% false positives in a best case scenario. To measure the overall effectiveness of the IDS, the average sensitivity and false positive rates were calculated for both the maximum sensitivity and the minimum false positive rate. With the maximum sensitivity, the IDS had 80% sensitivity and 9% false positives on average. The IDS also averaged 63% sensitivity with a 0.4% false positive rate when the minimal number of false positives is needed. These rates are an improvement on results found in a previous study as the sensitivity rate in general increased while the false positive rate decreased.
Formation of Mercury(II)-Glutathione Conjugates Examined Using High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry  [PDF]
Zachary Fine, Troy D. Wood
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2013.12011

Maternal exposure to Hg(II) during pregnancy has been identified as a potential causal factor in the development of severe neurobehavioral disorders. Children with autism have been identified with lower reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios, and GSH is known to strongly bind Hg(II). In order to gain insight into the mechanism by which GSH binds Hg(II), high resolution mass spectrometry coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was utilized to examine the conjugation process. While the 1:1 Hg(II):GSH conjugate is not formed immediately upon mixing aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and GSH, two species containing Hg(II) are observed:the 1:2 Hg(II):GSH conjugate, [(GS)2 Hg + H+], and a second Hg(II)-containing species around m/z 544. Interestingly, this species at m/z 544 decreases in time while the presence of the 1:1 Hg(II):GSH conjugate increases, suggesting that m/z 544 is an intermediate in the formation of the 1:1 conjugate. Experiments using the high mass accuracy capability of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry coupled to an electrospray ionization source indicate that the intermediate species is [GSH + HgCl]+, andnotthe 1:1 conjugate [Hg(GSH) – H + 2H2O]+postulated in previous literature. Further confirmation of [GSH + HgCl]+ is supported by collisionofinduced dissociation experiments, which show neutral loss of HCl from the intermediate and loss of the N- and C-terminal amino acids, indicating binding of Hg(II) at the Cys residue.

Gold in bimetallic molecular clusters
P. Braunstein,J. Rose
Gold Bulletin , 1985, DOI: 10.1007/BF03214683
Abstract: Gold-containing mixed-metal clusters and cluster compounds have been studied increasingly over the past few years. In this article the synthesis, structure and chemical reactivity of molecular cluster compounds in which gold is associated with one or more transition metals are reviewed. The bimetallic associations encountered at the molecular level are also examined in view of their importance in homogeneous, supported, and heterogeneous catalysis. The improved catalytic properties of gold-containing bimetallic over monometallic clusters have been described elsewhere in this issue by J. Schwank.
Diálogo sobre la nostalgia en psicoanálisis
Braunstein Néstor
Desde el Jardín de Freud , 2011,
Abstract: El psicoanálisis se construyó alrededor de la idea de traumatismo psíquico y de sus destinos. Eso llevó a olvidar el otro polo de la memoria: el de la nostalgia, el goce de la memoria aferrada a lo perdido y ausente. El tema, presente en la vida y obra de Freud, se reconoce en conceptos como experiencia de satisfacción, deseo (Wunsch y Sehnsucht), compulsión de repetición, preservación integral del pasado, retorno al claustro materno al dormir, fantasías filo y ontogenéticas, lamentos por la transitoriedad, carácter conservador y regresivo de la pulsión de muerte, etc. Résumé La psychanalyse a été batie autour de l’idée de traumatisme psychique et de ses destins, ce qui a fait oublier l’autre p le de la mémoire: la nostalgie, jouissance de la mémoire ancré sur ce qui est perdu et absent. Cette question, toujours présente dans l’oeuvre et la vie de Freud, se devine en des concepts tels que l’expérience de satisfaction [Wunsch et Sehnsucht], la compulsion de répétition, l’entière préservation du passé, le retour à l’enceinte maternelle lors du sommeil, les fantasmes philoet ontogénétiques, les plaintes du transitoire, le caractère conservateur et régressif de la pulsion de mort, etc. Abstract Psychoanalysis was built around the idea of “psychic trauma” and its fate. This led to forgetting the other pole of memory: that of nostalgia, the jouissance of memory that clungs to what is lost and absent. This cuestion is always present in Freud’s life and work, and is reflected in concepts such as “experience of satisfaction”, “desire” (Wunsch and Sehnsucht), “repetition compulsion”, “integral preservation of the past”, “return to the womb during sleep”, “phylogenetic and ontogenetic fantasies”, “lamentations due to transience”, and “conservative and regressive character of the death drive”.
Quantum error correction of dephasing in 3 qubits
Samuel L. Braunstein
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We show how to perform error correction of single qubit dephasing by encoding a single qubit into a minimum of three. This may be performed in a manner closely analogous to classical error correction schemes. Further, the resulting quantum error correction schemes are trivially generalized to the minimal encoding of arbitrarily many qubits so as to allow for multiqubit dephasing correction under the sole condition that the environment acts independently on each qubit.
Quantum teleportation circuitry
Samuel L. Braunstein
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: This paper is withdrawn as it is equivalent to the paper quant-ph/9605035 by Gilles Brassard.
A toy model for slowly growing wormholes as effective topology changes
Samuel L. Braunstein
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We present a toy model for growing wormholes as a model of effective low-energy topology changes. We study the propagation of quantum fields on a $1+1$ spacetime analogous to the trouser-leg topology change. A low-energy effective topology change is produced by a physical model which corresponds to a barrier smoothly changing the tunneling probability between two spatial regions.
Absorption with inversion and amplification without inversion in a coherently prepared V - system: a dressed state approach
D. Braunstein,R. Shuker
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Light induced absorption with population inversion and amplification without population inversion (LWI) in a coherently prepared closed three level V - type system are investigated. This study is performed from the point of view of a two color dressed state basis. Both of these processes are possible due to atomic coherence and quantum interference contrary to simple intuitive predictions. Merely on physical basis, one would expect a complementary process to the amplification without inversion. We believe that absorption in the presence of population inversion found in the dressed state picture utilized in this study, constitutes such a process. Novel approximate analytic time dependent solutions, for coherences and populations are obtained, and are compared with full numerical solutions exhibiting excellent agreement. Steady state quantities are also calculated, and the conditions under which the system exhibits absorption and gain with and without inversion, in the dressed state representation are derived. It is found that for a weak probe laser field absorption with inversion and amplification without inversion may occur, for a range of system parameters.
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