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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 30990 matches for " Z Mchiza "
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Nutrition interventions in the workplace: Evidence of best practice
NP Steyn, W Parker, EV Lambert, Z Mchiza
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Aim: The aim of this desktop study was to review all workplace interventions having a nutrition component, published in peer-reviewed literature between 1995 and 2006 by WHO, and to document activities that were successful, as well as possible barriers to their success. Methodology: A systematic review of workplace studies revealed 41 interventions, of which 30 complied with the predetermined search criteria. The following outcome measures were considered in the evaluation of the interventions: (i) changes in nutritional knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, intentions and stage of change; (ii) changes in dietary behaviours; (iii) changes in clinical/physical markers, such as: body weight or body-mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP) or serum cholesterol concentrations; and (iv) process and/or policy outcomes. Results: A large number of diverse workplace interventions were successful in changing outcomes positively in the interventions evaluated. The following were key success factors: i) there was a nutrition and physical activity component; ii) dietitians were involved in nutrition education; iii) changes occurred in the cafeteria/canteen, which increased the availability of healthy food options and advertised them accordingly; iv) tailored feedback on diet (and clinical values) was given to subjects; v) employees were involved in planning and managing programmes; vi) the reduced prices (of healthy food items) in vending machines encouraged employees to buy healthier options; and vii) the stages of change theory was most commonly associated with best practice outcomes. Conclusions: Numerous workplace interventions have shown significant improvements in employees’ health and behaviours. However, it is necessary to plan intervention programmes based on the existing evidence of best practice.
A review of school nutrition interventions globally as an evidence base for the development of the HealthKick programme in the Western Cape, South Africa
NP Steyn, EV Lambert, W Parker, Z Mchiza, A De Villiers
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to review all school interventions having a nutrition component, published in peer-reviewed literature between 1995 and 2006, and to document activities that were successful as well as those that were possible barriers in order to develop a best practice school intervention for the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Methodology: A systematic review of school studies revealed 85 interventions that complied with the predetermined search criteria. The following outcome measures were considered in the evaluation of the interventions: (i) changes in nutritional knowledge, attitudes and selfefficacy and stage of change; (ii) changes in dietary behaviours; (iii) changes in clinical/physical markers such as body weight or body mass index, blood pressure or serum cholesterol concentrations; and (iv) process and/or policy outcomes. Results: Key success factors of school-based interventions appeared to be the following: A nutrition-based curriculum offered at school by trained teachers generally improved behavioural outcomes. A physical activity programme and parental component were associated with most of the best practice clinical and behavioural outcomes. Furthermore, all best practice studies were grounded on a firm theory of behaviour, such as social cognitive, social marketing or stages of change. Most of the interventions that included a food service component had best practice behavioural outcomes. Conclusions: Numerous school-based nutrition interventions have shown significant improvements in children’s nutritional behaviours. Consequently, it is necessary to plan programmes based on existing evidence of best practice. The lessons learnt from this review have been applied in the development of the HealthKick programme initiated in schools in the Western Cape in 2007.
Diet and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stages in the nutrition transition
Zulfa Abrahams, Zandile Mchiza, Nelia P Steyn
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-801
Abstract: Based on the availability of data, 40 countries in SSA were selected for analysis. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation, Demographic and Health Surveys and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) was used to explore the determinants of infant mortality. A six point score was developed to identify each country's stage in the nutrition transition.MLRA showed that underweight-for-age, protein and the percentage of exclusively breastfed infants were associated with the infant mortality rate (IMR). The majority of countries (n = 26) used in the analysis had nutrition transition scores of zero and one. Most of them had a high prevalence of infant mortality, children that were stunted or underweight-for-age, small percentages of women that were overweight and obese, and low intakes of energy, protein, and fat. Countries with the highest scores include South Africa, Ghana, Gabon, Cape Verde and Senegal which had relatively low IMRs, high levels of obesity/overweight, and low levels of underweight in women, as well as high intakes of energy and fat. These countries display classic signs of a population well established in the nutrition-related non-communicable disease phase of the nutrition transition.Countries in SSA are clearly undergoing a nutrition transition. More than half of them are still in the early stage, while a few have reached a point where changes in dietary patterns are affecting health outcomes in a large portion of the population. Those in the early stage of the transition are especially important, since primordial prevention can still be introduced.Developed (high-income) and developing (low-to-medium income) countries differ significantly in causes of death. The leading causes of mortality in developed countries are non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer which account for approximately two-thirds of all deaths [1]. However,
Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and body weight status in South African women
ZJ Mchiza, JH Goedecke, EV Lambert
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The current study sought to identify characteristics that may be associated with the misreporting of food energy intake (EI) in urban South African women. A total of 198 women (61 black, 76 of mixed ancestry, 61 white) completed a quantified food frequency questionnaire, from which daily energy and macronutrient intake were calculated. Body composition (body mass index [BMI], percentage of body fat), body image (Feel-Ideal Difference index and Body Shape questions) and socio-economic status (SES) (household density and asset index) were also measured. Food EI in relation to estimated basal metabolic rate ratio that was less than 1.05 represented under-reporting, whereas a ratio greater than 2.28 represented over-reporting. Results suggested that 26% of the participants under-reported, 64% adequately reported and 10% over-reported. Participants who under-reported had a higher BMI (p < 0.01) and higher percentage of body fat (p < 0.05) than those who adequately and over-reported. The majority of under-reporters were black (38%) versus 21% under-reporters of mixed ancestry and 20% white under-reporters (p < 0.01). Eighty-three per cent of black under-reporters were obese. On the other hand, a majority (63%) of overweight women of mixed ancestry and a majority (50%) of white normal-weight women under-reported their food EI. Under-reporters reported a lower intake of dietary fat (p < 0.01) and a higher intake of dietary protein (p < 0.01) than adequate or over-reporters. Food EI reporting was not influenced by SES or body image. In conclusion, results suggest that food EI reporting is influenced by body size, and may be ethnic-specific in South African women.
Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads
Zandile J Mchiza, Julia H Goedecke, Estelle V Lambert
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-433
Abstract: Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white) answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status), their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score). Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA.Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308), regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI). The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685). The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960) regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342) between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p = 0.693, respectively). In this instance, black mother-daughter dyads chose significantly heavier silhouettes than the other ethnic groups. This implies that black mothers and daughters associate beauty, respect and happiness with a bigger body size.Resemblances exist between pre-adolescent girls and their mothers on issues related to ideal and attitudinal body image. In this regard, South African researchers should consider the effects ethnicity and family status on body image of women when developing targeted interventions to prevent or manage obesity.Obesity is an important risk factor for chronic non-communicable di
Food security in South Africa: a review of national surveys
Labadarios,Demetre; Mchiza,Zandile June-Rose; Steyn,Nelia Patricia; Gericke,Gerda; Maunder,Eleni Maria Winifred; Davids,Yul Derek; Parker,Whadi-ah;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862011001200012
Abstract: objective: to assess the status of food security - i.e. access to food, food availability and food utilization - in south africa. methods: a systematic search of national surveys that used the community childhood hunger identification project (cchip) index to measure food security in south africa over a period of 10 years (1999-2008) was conducted. anthropometric data for children aged 1-9 years were used to assess food utilization, and household food inventory data were used to assess food availability. findings: only three national surveys had used the cchip index, namely, the 1999 and 2005 national food consumption surveys (nfcs) and the 2008 south african social attitudes survey. these surveys showed a relatively large decrease in food insecurity between 1999 and 2008. however, the consistent emerging trend indicated that in poorer households women were either feeding their children a poor diet or skipping meals so their children could eat. in terms of food access and availability, the 1999 nfcs showed that households that enjoyed food security consumed an average of 16 different food items over 24 hours, whereas poorer households spent less money on food and consumed fewer than 8 different food items. moreover, children had low mean scores for dietary diversity (3.58; standard deviation, sd: ± 1.37) and dietary variety (5.52; sd: ± 2.54) scores. in terms of food utilization, the nfcs showed that stunting in children decreased from 21.6% in 1999 to 18% in 2005. conclusion: the south african government must implement measures to improve the undesirably high level of food insecurity in poorer households.
Historical and mathematical aspects of iterative solutions for Monte Carlo simulations
Was, Z.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: Over the last 25 years Monte Carlo programs were being developped in Cracow in the group guided by Prof. Stanislaw Jadach. Many of those programs became standard in their application domains. In the following let us review some aspects of such projects which were probably at the foundation of their success. We will concentrate on mathematical aspects of their design and history of their construction. It is rather difficult to cover 25 years of the research in a single talk. That is why, I have organized my presentation around Monte Carlo PHOTOS but stressing its relation to other activities and projects often realized together with Prof. Jadach. Many of omitted aspects will find their way into other perentations collected in this volume. I will concentrate on issues related to phasespace parametrization and spin amplitudes as used in our Monte Carlo programs such as MUSTRAAL, TAUOLA or KKMC and their similarities and differences with respect to solution used in PHOTOS.
Trefoil knot and ad-hoc classification of elementary fields in the Standard Model
Z. Was
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)01346-4
Abstract: We present an arbitrary model based on the trefoil knot to construct objects of the same spectrum as that of elementary particles. It includes `waves' and three identical sets of sources. Due to Lorentz invariance, `waves' group into 3 types of 1, 3 and 8 objects and `sources' consists of 3 identical sets of 30+2 elements, which separate into: 1 * 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 * 2 + 3 * 2 * 2 + 3 * 1 * 2 + 3 * 1 * 2 and another 1 * 1 * 2 group (which does not match classification of the Standard Model fields). On the other hand, there is no room in this construction for objects directly corresponding to Higgs-like degrees of freedom.
TAUOLA the library for tau lepton decay, and KKMC/KORALB/KORALZ/... status report
Z. Was
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(01)01200-2
Abstract: The status of the Monte Carlo programs for the simulation of the $\tau$ lepton production in high energy accelerator experiments and decay is reviewed. In particular, the status of the following packages is discussed: (i) TAUOLA for tau-lepton decay, (ii) PHOTOS for radiative corrections in decays, (iii) KORALB, KORALZ, KKMC packages for tau-pair production in e+e- collisions and (iv) universal interface of TAUOLA for the decay of tau-leptons produced by``any'' generator. Special emphasis on requirements from new and future experiments is given. Some considerations about the software organization necessary to keep simultaneously distinct physics initializations for TAUOLA are also included.
New hadronic currents in TAUOLA: for confrontation with the experimental data
Z. Was
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2012.02.040
Abstract: The status of implementation of new hadronic currents into the Monte Carlo system for simulation of tau-lepton production and decay in high-energy accelerator experiments is reviewed. Since the tau-lepton conference in 2010 substantial progress was achieved: (i) For the TAUOLA Monte Carlo generator of tau-lepton decays, automated and simultaneous use of many versions of form factors for the calculation of optional weights for fits was developed and checked to work in the Belle and BaBar software environment. Alternative parameterizations of hadronic currents based on the Resonance Chiral approach are available now. This was achieved for more than 88% of the total tau hadronic width. (ii) the TAUOLA universal interface based on HepMC (the C++ event record) is available. This is the case for C++ users of PHOTOS Monte Carlo for radiative corrections in decays, as well. An algorithm for weighted events to explore spin effects in analysis of hard processes was prepared. (iii) Kernels featuring a complete first-order matrix element are available now for PHOTOS users interested in decays of Z and W bosons. New tests with different options of matrix elements for those and for Kl3 decays are available as well. Presented results illustrate the status of the projects performed in collaboration with Zofia Czyczula, Nadia Davidson, Tomasz Przedzinski, Olga Shekhovtsova, Elzbieta Richter-Was, Pablo Roig, Qingjun Xu and others.
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