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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31017 matches for " Z Essack "
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Child consent in South African law: Implications for researchers, service providers and policy-makers
A Strode, C Slack, Z Essack
South African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Children under 18 are legal minors who, in South African law, are not fully capable of acting independently without assistance from parents/legal guardians. However, in recognition of the evolving capacity of children, there are exceptional circumstances where the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently. We describe legal norms for child consent to health-related interventions in South Africa, and argue that the South African Parliament has taken an inconsistent approach to: the capacity of children to consent; the persons able to consent when children do not have capacity; and restrictions on the autonomy of children or their proxies to consent. In addition, the rationale for the differing age limitations, capacity requirements and public policy restrictions has not been specified. These inconsistencies make it difficult for stakeholders interacting with children to ensure that they act lawfully.
HIV prevention responsibilities in HIV vaccine trials: Complexities facing South African researchers
Z Essack, C Slack, J Koen, G Gray
South African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Researchers should protect the welfare of research participants through providing methods to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV. This is especially important given that latephase HIV vaccine trials enrol HIV-uninfected trial volunteers from high-risk populations. Current ethical guidelines may be difficult for stakeholders to implement, and we know very little about what prevention services researchers are currently providing to participants or their successes, best practices and challenges. We recommend that current normative guidance be systematically reviewed and actual practice at vaccine sites be documented. Adding new tools to the current package of prevention services will involve complex decision making with few set standards, and regulatory and scientific challenges. Werecommend that stakeholders (including regulators) convene to consider standards of evidence for new tools, and that decision-making processes be explicitly documented and researched. A further critical ethical task is exploring the threshold at which adding new tools will compromise the validity of trial results.
Compensation for research-related injury in South Africa: A critique of the good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines
C Slack, P Singh, A Strode, Z Essack
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law , 2012,
Abstract: This article examines the current South African Department of Health Good Clinical Practice (2006) guideline recommendations regarding compensation for harm incurred in clinical trials. It applies the case of a phase IIb HIV vaccine trial in South Africa, for which enrolments and vaccinations were suspended early, based on data from an international companion study that indicated no evidence of efficacy and greater susceptibility to HIV infection in a subgroup of vaccinees. The case application indicates certain substantive and procedural limitations within the South African Department of Health Good Clinical Practice (2006) guideline recommendations on compensation for harm, which should be re-considered in order to improve protections for trial participants.
ISSUES IN MEDICINE: Models for increasing the health workforce
SY Essack
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A stable human resource base in the health sector is critical to achieving health-related Millennium Development Goals. There is a severe quantitative and qualitative shortfall of healthcare professionals in South Africa, and the existing and future health workforce production is inadequate for our healthcare needs. The production model must include all healthcare disciplines because the quadruple burden of disease necessitates multi-professional healthcare teams working synergistically to improve health outcomes and life expectancy.
TEM-145 and TEM-146 -lactamases produced by Escherichia coli isolates from state hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
C Mocktar, U Govinden, S Essack
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Two Escherichia coli isolates which were isolated from the urine of patients in state hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were investigated to determine the sequence of the TEM -lactamases responsible for their resistance to -lactamase inhibitors. The isolates were subjected to MIC determinations, iso-electric focusing analysis, plasmid analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of -lactamase genes and sequencing of the blaTEM. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of two novel TEM -lactamases, TEM-145 and TEM-146 which had the R244H mutation. Mutations at position 244 have been previously reported in other inhibitor-resistant TEMs (IRTs).
The effect of mutations in the AmpC promoter region on β-lactam resistance from an Escherichia coli clinical isolate in a public sector hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
C Mocktar, U Govinden, S Essack
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The ampC promoter and attenuator regions of an Escherichia coli clinical isolate from a public hospital in KwaZulu-Natal was investigated to detect the presence of mutations in these regions. The isolate was subjected to MIC determinations, IEF analysis, PCR for the presence of β-lactamases and sequencing of the ampC gene. Analysis of the ampC promoter and attenuator regions of the isolate showed that the isolate had mutations in the promoter region and this included insertions of nucleotides in the spacer region between the -10 and -35 Pribnow boxes. The insertion of an extra nucleotide in the spacer region between the -10 and -35 boxes affects the resistance of bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance via the food chain: Fact or fiction?
Linda A. Bester,Sabiha Y. Essack
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i9/10.281
Abstract: The mechanisms that bacteria use to acquire additional genetic material, including genes coding for antibiotic resistance, are principally the secondary pathways that have been described as transformation and conjugation pathways. The farming industry often is reported as a hotspot for antibiotic-resistance reservoirs. In this review, we consider the exposure of food animals during the course of their lifespans to preventative, therapeutic or prophylactic treatment with antibiotic agents. In this context, zoonotic bacteria are commonly recognised as a potential threat to human health, with therapeutic treatment of pathogenic organisms on farms increasing the likelihood of selective antibiotic pressure influencing the commensal flora of the intestines. Existing literature indicates, however, that the effective impact on human health of such interventions in the food production process is still subject to debate.
Information Exploration System for Sickle Cell Disease and Repurposing of Hydroxyfasudil
Magbubah Essack, Aleksandar Radovanovic, Vladimir B. Bajic
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065190
Abstract: Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a fatal monogenic disorder with no effective cure and thus high rates of morbidity and sequelae. Efforts toward discovery of disease modifying drugs and curative strategies can be augmented by leveraging the plethora of information contained in available biomedical literature. To facilitate research in this direction we have developed a resource, Dragon Exploration System for Sickle Cell Disease (DESSCD) (http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/desscd/) that aims to promote the easy exploration of SCD-related data. Description The Dragon Exploration System (DES), developed based on text mining and complemented by data mining, processed 419,612 MEDLINE abstracts retrieved from a PubMed query using SCD-related keywords. The processed SCD-related data has been made available via the DESSCD web query interface that enables: a/information retrieval using specified concepts, keywords and phrases, and b/the generation of inferred association networks and hypotheses. The usefulness of the system is demonstrated by: a/reproducing a known scientific fact, the “Sickle_Cell_Anemia–Hydroxyurea” association, and b/generating novel and plausible “Sickle_Cell_Anemia–Hydroxyfasudil” hypothesis. A PCT patent (PCT/US12/55042) has been filed for the latter drug repurposing for SCD treatment. Conclusion We developed the DESSCD resource dedicated to exploration of text-mined and data-mined information about SCD. No similar SCD-related resource exists. Thus, we anticipate that DESSCD will serve as a valuable tool for physicians and researchers interested in SCD.
Conotoxins that Confer Therapeutic Possibilities
Magbubah Essack,Vladimir B. Bajic,John A. C. Archer
Marine Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/md10061244
Abstract: Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt ?; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ω-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) was also inferred.
Recently Confirmed Apoptosis-Inducing Lead Compounds Isolated from Marine Sponge of Potential Relevance in Cancer Treatment
Magbubah Essack,Vladimir B. Bajic,John A.C. Archer
Marine Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/md9091580
Abstract: Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39?recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review.
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