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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 249064 matches for " Yvonne L. Michael "
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Social integration: How is it related to self-rated health?  [PDF]
Hejun Kang, Yvonne L. Michael
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2013.21002

Social integration has well-established health benefits among older adults in observational studies. However, interventions designed to increase social integration have not improved health suggesting important knowledge gaps on how social integration influences health outcomes. This study developed a new measure of social integration, daily social contact, capturing the interpersonal nature of social integration and mobility of individuals, and providing a direct assessment of individuals’ real-time access to companionship and social support. The data used is the 2006-2007 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), which surveyed 25,191 individuals aged 15 years and older (n = 4378 aged 65 years and older). Generalized ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed positive, but non-parallel relationships between daily social contacts and the ordinal categories of self-rated health among older adults. This study may be used to identify populations that experience social exclusion, such that future research can determine more precisely how to intervene to improve health outcomes.

Analysis of Individual Social-ecological Mediators and Moderators and Their Ability to Explain Effect of a Randomized Neighborhood Walking Intervention
Yvonne L Michael, Nichole E Carlson
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-49
Abstract: Three potential mediators (social cohesion, walking efficacy, and perception of neighborhood problems) and minutes of brisk walking were assessed at baseline, 3-months, and 6-months. One moderator, neighborhood walkability, was assessed using an administrative GIS database. The mediating effect of change in process variables on change in brisk walking was tested using a product-of-coefficients test, and we evaluated the moderating effect of neighborhood walkability on change in brisk walking by testing the significance of the interaction between walkability and intervention status.Only one of the hypothesized mediators, walking efficacy, explained the intervention effect (product of the coefficients (95% CI) = 8.72 (2.53, 15.56). Contrary to hypotheses, perceived neighborhood problems appeared to suppress the intervention effects (product of the coefficients (95% CI = -2.48, -5.6, -0.22). Neighborhood walkability did not moderate the intervention effect.Walking efficacy may be an important mediator of lay-lead walking interventions for sedentary older adults. Social-ecologic theory-based analyses can support clinical interventions to elucidate the mediators and moderators responsible for producing intervention effects.Health interventions have come to rely more heavily on social-ecological theory as recognition grows that a one-size-fits-all approach to community-level interventions is not optimal. In the field of health promotion, social-ecological theory focuses on identifying individual, social-environmental, and physical environmental influences on health behaviors. Social-ecologic theory provides a conceptual framework for informing the development of intervention strategies that target changes beyond the individual level, with an emphasis on environmental and policy influences [1,2]. Social-ecologic theory does not give specific guidance on which variables within each domain of influence are an appropriate focus, thus specific mediators and moderators must be
The Urban Built Environment and Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Review
Andrea L. Rosso,Amy H. Auchincloss,Yvonne L. Michael
Journal of Aging Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/816106
Abstract: Mobility restrictions in older adults are common and increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes and premature mortality. The effect of built environment on mobility in older populations, among whom environmental effects may be strongest, is the focus of a growing body of the literature. We reviewed recent research (1990–2010) that examined associations of objective measures of the built environment with mobility and disability in adults aged 60 years or older. Seventeen empirical articles were identified. The existing literature suggests that mobility is associated with higher street connectivity leading to shorter pedestrian distances, street and traffic conditions such as safety measures, and proximity to destinations such as retail establishments, parks, and green spaces. Existing research is limited by differences in exposure and outcome assessments and use of cross-sectional study designs. This research could lead to policy interventions that allow older adults to live more healthy and active lives in their communities. 1. Introduction Mobility limitations are defined by impairment or dependence in movement and affect between one third and one half of adults aged 65 or older [1]. Mobility limitations can affect an individual’s health through a number of pathways. Lack of physical activity in older individuals can lead to loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia), loss of bone density (osteoporosis), and an increase in fat mass (obesity) [2, 3]. Isolation and loss of social ties resulting from reduced mobility can lead to depression and other adverse mental health outcomes [4]. A lack of access to resources such as fresh foods and medical care which can result from limited mobility can also have negative impacts on health [5]. Individuals with mobility limitations are also at higher risk of health service utilization [6–8] and institutionalization [6, 9, 10]. Ultimately, further frailty and disability and an increased risk of premature mortality can result from restricted mobility [1, 11]. Methods of assessing mobility limitations vary [1]. In assessment of mobility, it is important to distinguish between capacity to function—what an individual could do—and enacted function—what an individual does do [12]. In this way, assessments of an individual’s walking behavior represent an enacted form of mobility while questions that assess an individual’s perception of their ability represent functional capacity. Both may be relevant measures of mobility. Mobility restrictions are not typically the result of a single cause, but arise from an interaction of
Myosin II-Mediated Focal Adhesion Maturation Is Tension Insensitive
Jonathan Stricker, Yvonne Beckham, Michael W. Davidson, Margaret L. Gardel
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070652
Abstract: Myosin II motors drive changes in focal adhesion morphology and composition in a “maturation process” that is crucial for regulating adhesion dynamics and signaling guiding cell adhesion, migration and fate. The underlying mechanisms of maturation, however, have been obscured by the intermingled effects of myosin II on lamellar actin architecture, dynamics and force transmission. Here, we show that focal adhesion growth rate stays constant even when cellular tension is reduced by 75%. Focal adhesion growth halts only when myosin stresses are sufficiently low to impair actin retrograde flow. Focal adhesion lifetime is reduced at low levels of cellular tension, but adhesion stability can be rescued at low levels of force by over-expression of α-actinin or constitutively active Dia1. Our work identifies a minimal myosin activity threshold that is necessary to drive lamellar actin retrograde flow is sufficient to permit focal adhesion elongation. Above this nominal threshold, myosin-mediated actin organization and dynamics regulate focal adhesion growth and stability in a force-insensitive fashion.
Built Environment and Its Influences on Walking among Older Women: Use of Standardized Geographic Units to Define Urban Forms
Vivian W. Siu,William E. Lambert,Rongwei Fu,Teresa A. Hillier,Mark Bosworth,Yvonne L. Michael
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/203141
Abstract: Consensus is lacking on specific and policy-relevant measures of neighborhood attributes that may affect health outcomes. To address this limitation, we created small standardized geographic units measuring the transit, commercial, and park area access, intersection, and population density for the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Cluster analysis was used to identify six unique urban forms: central city, city periphery, suburb, urban fringe with poor commercial access, urban fringe with pool park access, and satellite city. The urban form information was linkable to the detailed physical activity, health, and socio-demographic data of 2,005 older women without the use of administrative boundaries. Evaluation of the relationship between urban forms and walking behavior indicates that older women residing in city center were more likely to walk than those living in city periphery, suburb communities, and urban fringe with poor commercial access; however, these women were not significantly more likely to walk compared to those residing in urban fringe with poor park access or satellite city. Utility of small standardized geographic units and clusters to measure and define built environment support research investigating the impact of built environment and health. The findings may inform environmental/policy interventions that shape communities and promote active living.
Conversion of Natural Aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into Oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR Analysis ?
Igor W. Ouédraogo,Michael Boulvin,Robert Flammang,Pascal Gerbaux,Yvonne L. Bonzi-Coulibaly
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14093275
Abstract: Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae) and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.
Sedentary Behavior and Physical Function Decline in Older Women: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative
Rebecca Seguin,Michael LaMonte,Lesley Tinker,Jingmin Liu,Nancy Woods,Yvonne L. Michael,Cheryl Bushnell,Andrea Z. LaCroix
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/271589
Abstract: Sedentary behavior is associated with deleterious health outcomes. This study evaluated the association between sedentary time and physical function among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Data for this prospective cohort study were collected between 1993–1998 (enrollment) and 2009, with an average of 12.3 follow-up years. Analyses included 61,609 women (aged 50–79 years at baseline). Sedentary time was estimated by questionnaire; physical function was measured using the RAND SF-36 physical function scale. Mixed-model analysis of repeated measures was used to estimate the relationship of sedentary time exposures and changes in physical function adjusting for relevant covariates. Compared to women reporting sedentary time of ≤6 hours/day, those with greater amounts of sedentary time (>6–8 hours/day, >8–11 hours/day, >11 hours/day) reported lower physical function between baseline and follow up (coefficient = ?0.78, CI = ?0.98, ?0.57, ?1.48, CI = ?1.71, ?1.25, ?3.13, and CI = ?3.36, ?2.89, respectively ?? < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Sedentary time was strongly associated with diminished physical function and most pronounced among older women and those reporting the greatest sedentary time. Maintaining physical function with age may be improved by pairing messages to limit sedentary activities with those promoting recommended levels of physical activity. 1. Introduction Participation in regular physical activity confers many health benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, certain cancers, and all-cause mortality [1–7]. Physical activity also improves skeletal muscle function and may ameliorate symptoms of arthritis, depression, and sleep disturbances in older women [8–11]. In general, greater quantity and intensity of exercise have increased benefits, although studies have demonstrated benefits with less-frequent, lower-intensity activities over short bouts [6]. Consistent with this evidence, prolonged exposure to sedentary time has been associated with increased risk of many of the aforementioned diseases and conditions [12–14]. In much of the research to date, sedentary time is classified based on lack of self-reported physical activity, as compared to asking about or measuring actual time spent sitting or lying. Specifically, an assessment of sedentary time may include time spent in behaviors such as screen viewing (i.e., watching television or working at a computer) and other daily episodes of sitting or lying to work, eat, read, or socialize.
Pain persists in DAS28 rheumatoid arthritis remission but not in ACR/EULAR remission: a longitudinal observational study
Yvonne C Lee, Jing Cui, Bing Lu, Michelle L Frits, Christine K Iannaccone, Nancy A Shadick, Michael E Weinblatt, Daniel H Solomon
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3353
Abstract: Data were analyzed from RA patients in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study with data at baseline and 1 year. DAS28 remission was defined as DAS28-CRP4 <2.6. The ACR/EULAR remission criteria included (a) one or more swollen joints, (b) one or more tender joints, (c) C-reactive protein ≤1 mg/dl, and (d) patient global assessment score ≤1. Pain severity was measured by using the pain score from the Multi-Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ). The associations between baseline clinical predictors and MDHAQ pain at baseline and 1 year were assessed by using multivariable linear regression.Among the 865 patients with data at baseline and 1 year, 157 (18.2%) met DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria at both time points. Thirty-seven (4.3%) met the ACR/EULAR remission criteria at baseline and 1 year. The prevalence of clinically significant pain (MDHAQ pain ≥4) at baseline ranged from 11.9% among patients meeting DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria to none among patients meeting ACR/EULAR remission criteria. Patient global assessment, MDHAQ function, MDHAQ fatigue, MDHAQ sleep, and arthritis self-efficacy were significantly associated with MDHAQ pain in cross-sectional (P ≤ 0.0005) and longitudinal analyses (P ≤ 0.03). Low swollen-joint counts were associated with high MDHAQ pain in longitudinal analyses (P = 0.02) but not cross-sectional analyses. Other measures of inflammatory disease activity and joint damage were not significantly associated with MDHAQ pain at baseline or at 1 year.Clinically significant pain continues among a substantial proportion of patients in DAS28 remission but not among those in ACR/EULAR remission. Among patients in DAS28 remission, patient global assessment, disability, fatigue, sleep problems, and self-efficacy are strongly associated with pain severity at baseline and 1 year, whereas inflammatory disease activity and joint damage are not significantly associated with elevated pain severity at either baseline or 1 year.Rheumatoid
Regulation of Neuronal Differentiation by Proteins Associated with Nuclear Bodies
Benjamin F?rthmann, Jeroen van Bergeijk, Yu-Wei Lee, Verena Lübben, Yvonne Schill, Hella Brinkmann, Andreas Ratzka, Michal K. Stachowiak, Michael Hebert, Claudia Grothe, Peter Claus
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082871
Abstract: Nuclear bodies are large sub-nuclear structures composed of RNA and protein molecules. The Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein localizes to Cajal bodies (CBs) and nuclear gems. Diminished cellular concentration of SMN is associated with the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). How nuclear body architecture and its structural components influence neuronal differentiation remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed the effects of SMN and two of its interaction partners in cellular models of neuronal differentiation. The nuclear 23 kDa isoform of Fibroblast Growth Factor – 2 (FGF-223) is one of these interacting proteins – and was previously observed to influence nuclear bodies by destabilizing nuclear gems and mobilizing SMN from Cajal bodies (CBs). Here we demonstrate that FGF-223 blocks SMN-promoted neurite outgrowth, and also show that SMN disrupts FGF-223-dependent transcription. Our results indicate that FGF-223 and SMN form an inactive complex that interferes with neuronal differentiation by mutually antagonizing nuclear functions. Coilin is another nuclear SMN binding partner and a marker protein for Cajal bodies (CBs). In addition, coilin is essential for CB function in maturation of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs). The role of coilin outside of Cajal bodies and its putative impacts in tissue differentiation are poorly defined. The present study shows that protein levels of nucleoplasmic coilin outside of CBs decrease during neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of coilin has an inhibitory effect on neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, we find that nucleoplasmic coilin inhibits neurite outgrowth independent of SMN binding revealing a new function for coilin in neuronal differentiation.
Structural Brain Alterations in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Preliminary Study
Michael Luchtmann, Yvonne Steinecke, Sebastian Baecke, Ralf Lützkendorf, Johannes Bernarding, Jana Kohl, Boris J?llenbeck, Claus Tempelmann, Patrick Ragert, Raimund Firsching
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090816
Abstract: Chronic pain is one of the most common health complaints in industrial nations. For example, chronic low back pain (cLBP) disables millions of people across the world and generates a tremendous economic burden. While previous studies provided evidence of widespread functional as well as structural brain alterations in chronic pain, little is known about cortical changes in patients suffering from lumbar disc herniation. We investigated morphometric alterations of the gray and white matter of the brain in patients suffering from LDH. The volumes of the gray and white matter of 12 LDH patients were determined in a prospective study and compared to the volumes of healthy controls to distinguish local differences. High-resolution MRI brain images of all participants were performed using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate local differences in gray and white matter volume between patients suffering from LDH and healthy controls. LDH patients showed significantly reduced gray matter volume in the right anterolateral prefrontal cortex, the right temporal lobe, the left premotor cortex, the right caudate nucleus, and the right cerebellum as compared to healthy controls. Increased gray matter volume, however, was found in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the left precuneal cortex, the left fusiform gyrus, and the right brainstem. Additionally, small subcortical decreases of the white matter were found adjacent to the left prefrontal cortex, the right premotor cortex and in the anterior limb of the left internal capsule. We conclude that the lumbar disk herniation can lead to specific local alterations of the gray and white matter in the human brain. The investigation of LDH-induced brain alterations could provide further insight into the underlying nature of the chronification processes and could possibly identify prognostic factors that may improve the conservative as well as the operative treatment of the LDH.
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