Abstract:
The microscopic physical properties of Hardened Cement Paste (HCP) surfaces were evaluated by using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). The cement pastes were cured under a hydrostatic pressure of 400 MPa and the contacting surfaces with a slide glass during the curing were studied. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation at a magnification of 7000 revealed smooth surfaces with no holes. The surface roughness calculated from the SPM measurement was 4 nm. The surface potential and the frictional force measured by SPM were uniform throughout the measured area 24 h after the curing. However, spots of low surface potential and stains of low frictional force and low viscoelasticity were observed one month after curing. This change was attributed to the carbonation of hydrates.

Reduction of ketimine with trichlorosilane was carried out using bisformamide catalyst1a derived from cyclohexanediamine to give the corresponding product in 81% yield with 39% ee. Deprotection of the formyl groups of the catalysts 1 gave the corresponding diamines 2 which were utilized in aldol reaction of acetone with 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The reaction using 2b in brine afforded the aldol adduct in 81% yield with 29% ee.

Abstract:
Contact angle of ethylene glycol and formamide on (100) faces of NaCl, KCl, and KBr single crystal was measured, and the specific surface free energy (SSFE) was calculated. Dispersion component of the SSFE was 90.57, 93.78, and 99.52 mN·m^{-1} for NaCl, KCl, and KBr, respectively. Polar component of the SSFE was 1.05, 0.65, and 0.45 mN·m^{-1} for NaCl, KCl, and KBr. Such a large ratio of dispersion component of SSFE results from the neutrality of the crystal surface of alkali halide. Lattice component of alkali halide is 780, 717 and 689 kJ·mol^{-1} for NaCl, KCl, and KBr. The larger lattice enthalpy decreases dispersion component, and increases polar component of the SSFE. The larger lattice enthalpy is considered to enhance the rumpling of the crystal surface more strongly, and such rumpling is considered to decrease the neutrality of the crystal surface.

Abstract:
We investigated thermal leptogenesis scenarios in the left-right symmetric extension of the standard model. In the SO(10) GUT framework, we impose the D-parity realization below GUT scale. These two conditions makes our model more restrictive and predictive. In such a case, a D-parity odd singlet in the 4-index antisymmetric tensor representation of SO(10) have a critical role. This singlet have prospects of causing a very large mass hierarchy between SU(2)L and SU(2)R triplet scalars. We test our model by computing baryogenesis via leptogenesis. The heavy right-handed neutrinos N's and the SU(2)L triplet scalar can generate the lepton number asymmetry. Leptogenesis scenarios can be categorized by these mass scales. If the light neutrinos are Majorana and have a hierarchical mass spectrum, we can obtain a successful result in leptogenesis through lightest N-decay. But we found that the normal mass hierarchy of the light neutrinos conflicts with leptogenesis through triplet-decay.

Abstract:
Functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to the three-body scattering problem in the two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction. We establish a new and correct flow equation on the basis of FRG and show that our flow equation is consistent with integral equations obtained from the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In particular, the relation of our flow equation and the Skornyakov and Ter-Martirosyan equation for the atom-dimer scattering is made clear.

Abstract:
Zero-dimensional $O(n)$-symmetric sigma models are studied by using Picard--Lefschetz integration method in the presence of small symmetry-breaking perturbations. Due to approximate symmetry, downward flows turn out to show significant structures: They slowly travel along the set of pseudo classical points, and branch into other directions so as to span middle-dimensional integration cycles. We propose an efficient way to find such slow motions for computing Lefschetz thimbles. In the limit of symmetry restoration, we figure out that only special combinations of Lefschetz thimbles can survive as convergent integration cycles: Other integrations become divergent due to non-compactness of the complexified group of symmetry. We also compute downward flows of $O(2)$-symmetric fermionic systems, and confirm that all of these properties are true also with fermions.

Abstract:
New formulation of fermionic functional renormalization group (f-FRG) with multiple regulators is proposed. It is applied to a two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction in order to study the whole region of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer to Bose-Einstein condensation crossover. Combining a conventional formalism of FRG with a two-point infrared (IR) regulator and a new formalism with an IR regulator inside the four-fermion vertex, we control both one-particle fermion excitations and collective bosonic excitations. This justifies a simple approximation on the f-FRG method, so that the connection of the f-FRG formalism to the Nozi\`eres-Schmitt-Rink (NSR) theory is made clear. Aspects of f-FRG to go beyond the NSR theory are also discussed.

Abstract:
Fermionic functional renormalization group (f-FRG) is applied to describe Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers for a two-component fermionic system with attractive contact interaction. In order to describe the system of dimers without introducing auxiliary bosonic fields (bosonization), we propose a new exact evolution-equation of the effective action in f-FRG with an infrared regulator for the fermion vertex. Then we analyze its basic properties in details. We show explicitly that the critical temperature of the free Bose gas is obtained naturally by this method without bosonization. Methods to make systematic improvement from the deep BEC limit are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
I discuss a correspondence between a fictitious fluid in the black hole membrane paradigm and highly excited closed string states according to the black hole correspondence principle. I calculate the membrane transport coefficients of an electric NS-NS 2-charged black hole and transport coefficients of the highly excited closed string states which possess a Kaluza-Klein number and a winding number. Comparing both the transport coefficients at the correspondence point, I show that, except for the bulk viscosity, the membrane transport coefficients are of the same order as the transport coefficients of the closed string states on the stretched horizon. Also, I show that, except for the bulk viscosity, both the dimensionless transport coefficients, which are defined by dividing the transport coefficients by the entropy density, are exactly equal if the central charge is 6.

Abstract:
Functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to the three-body scattering problem in the two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction. We establish a new and correct flow equation on the basis of FRG and show that our flow equation is consistent with integral equations obtained from the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In particular, the relation of our flow equation and the Skornyakov and Ter-Martirosyan equation for the atom-dimer scattering is made clear.