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A Flower Specific Calcineurin B-Like Molecule (CBL)-Interacting Protein Kinase (CIPK) Homolog in Tomato Cultivar Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum L.)  [PDF]
Takashi Yuasa, Yushi Ishibashi, Mari Iwaya-Inoue
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.36091
Abstract: Floral and reproductive organs of higher plants are relatively sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses compared with the vegetative organs. Calcineurin B-like molecule (CBL) interacting protein kinase (CIPK) has appeared to be involved in acquired tolerance and acclimation under environmental stresses such as salinity, drought and chilling. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR using the vegetative and reproductive organs of tomato Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum L.) at the various developmental stages indicated that SlCIPK2 was expressed specifically in the floral organ. An anti-CIPK specific antibody recognized the recombinant SlCIPK2 specifically and cross-reacted to a CIPK-related polypeptide at a significant level in flower, particularly in stamen. The flower specific CIPK was tightly associated with the microsomes. In vitro pull-down assay of the recombinant SlCIPK2 showed that SlCIPK2 interacts with SlCBLs and stress-responsive transcription factors, SlERF7, SlCBF1 and SlAREB1. The present data suggested that the flower-specific CIPK, SlCIPK2, was involved in calcium signaling in tomato via CBLs and stress tolerance possibly mediated by the stress-responsive transcription factors in stamen.
The Sucrose Starvation Signal Mediates Induction of Autophagy- and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Cowpea Seedling  [PDF]
Ayami Kaneko, Eri Noguchi, Yushi Ishibashi, Takashi Yuasa, Mari Iwaya-Inoue
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43083

In higher plants, autophagy is bulk degradation process in vacuole necessary for survival under nutrient-limited conditions and plays important roles in senescence, development and pathogenic response, etc. Cowpea is one of the most important legume crops in semi-aride region, which is highly tolerant to drought stress. Changes of photoassimilate status by drought stress and/or sink-source balance appeared to affect autophagy and senescence of leaf in cowpea. Accordingly, we focused on roles of sucrose signal in autophagy and amino acid recycling in cowpea. Effects of starvation stress on the expression of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) and amino acid catabolism-related genes in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] were examined by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and anti-ATG8i specific antibody. Sucrose starvation stress enhanced the expression levels of VuATG8i, VuATG8c and VuATG4 incowpea seedlings. The expressions of amino acid catabolism related genes, such as asparagine synthase (VuASN1), proline dehydrogenase1 (VuProDH) and branched chain amino acid transaminase (VuBCAT2), are also up-regulated under the sucrose starvation. In contrast, high sucrose condition suppressed autophagy and the expressions of ATGs. These results indicate that sucrose starvation stress stimulates both autophagy and amino acid catabolism by regulation of ATGs and VuBCAT2. It is conceivable that sucrose starvation stress enhances autophagy in cowpea, possibly via branched chain amino acid level regulated by the starvation-induced BCAT.

Wrinkled 1 (WRI1) Homologs, AP2-Type Transcription Factors Involving Master Regulation of Seed Storage Oil Synthesis in Castor Bean (Ricinus communisL.)  [PDF]
Daichi Tajima, Ayami Kaneko, Masatsugu Sakamoto, Yumena Ito, Nong Thi Hue, Masayuki Miyazaki, Yushi Ishibashi, Takashi Yuasa, Mari Iwaya-Inoue
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42044
Abstract: Among APETALA2 (AP2)-type plant specific transcription factor family, WRINKLED1 (WRI1), has appeared to be a master gene transcriptionally regulating a set of carbon metabolism- and fatty acid synthesis (FAS)-related genes responsible for seed specific triacylglycerols (TAGs) storage in oil plants. B3 type transcription factors, such as ABI3 and FUS3, are known to be involved in seed development, such as seed storage protein synthesis and maturation. Based on the recent whole genome sequence data of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), putative WRI1 homologs (RcWRI1, RcWRI2) specifically expressed in castor bean seed have been identified by comparing organ specific expression profiles among seed development-related transcription factors, seed storage specific genes (Ricin, RcOleosin) and a set of FAS genes including genes for sucrose synthase (RcSUS2), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (a subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, RcBCCP2) and ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase (RcKAS1). Immunoreactive signals with WRI1, FUS3 and ABI5-related polypeptides were also detected in seed specifically, consistent with the expression profiles of seed development-related genes. The WRI1 binding consensus sites, [CnTnG](n)(7)[CG], designated as the AW-box, were found at the promoter region of RcBCCP2 and RcKAS1. Thus, RcWRI1 possibly play a pivotal role in seed specific TAGs storage during seed development by directly activating FAS -related genes.
Hsp90 and reactive oxygen species regulate thermotolerance of rice seedlings via induction of heat shock factor A2 (OsHSFA2) and galactinol synthase 1 (OsGolS1)  [PDF]
Nong Thi Hue, Huong Thi Tran, Thuy Phan, Junya Nakamura, Tomoe Iwata, Keisuke Harano, Yushi Ishibashi, Takashi Yuasa, Mari Iwaya-Inoue
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.43023

Heat stress induces expression of a set of thermotolerance-related genes in plants. We focused on rice (Oryza sativa L.) homologs of the gene family that encodes galactinol synthase (OsGolS), which is closely related to the Arabidopsis thaliana galactinol synthase (AtGolS) family whose expression is induced under various stresses. OsGolS1 was highly up-regulated compare to the level of OsGolS2 in re- sponse to heat stress. Interestingly, OsGolS1 was also up-regulated by treatment with the Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GDA). Expression profiles of OsGolS1 were correlated to those of OsHsfA2 under the GDA treatments. Treatment with GDA increased expression of OsHsfA2, but marginally increased or did not change OsHsfA1 expression. Notably, gel shift assay indicated that OsHsfA2 binds directly to OsGolS1 promoter region and that OsHsfA1 also binds to the promoter regions of OsHsfA2. Both OsHsfA2 and OsGolS1 were dramatically induced in response to heat stress. Accordingly, galactinol and raffinose contents in rice seedlings increased significantly following the induction of OsGolS1. Pre-treatment of rice seedlings with raffinose or GDA improved their thermotolerance. These results suggest that OsGolS1 plays an important role in response to heat stress, possibly via the transcription cascade of OsHsfA1-OsHsfA2 that leads to galactinol and raffinose accumulation, and that the increased content of these carbohydrates is a

key response factor for rice seedlings to enhance thermotolerance.
Demographic Factors of Adult-Children on Their Caregiving Values and Options as Home Caregivers to Their Elderly Parents  [PDF]
Yushi Li, Andrea Carter
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55013
Abstract: Traditions in American culture continue to affect the elderly when it comes to choosing their living arrangements. Because there is a strong sense of independence in our society, the elderly population continues to elect to live in their own homes. As their abilities begin to deteriorate, they will need some form of outside care, such as their adult-children’s assistance. However, whether the younger generation can take on the caring role or not, their demographics can play a large part in determining their values and options on caring for their elderly parents. In order to comprehend these demographics as well as value factors, a survey was done to study adult-children aged 35 - 55 in the Greater Cincinnati area at the end of 2015. Results of the survey indicated that while adult-children were still willing to take on care responsibilities for their parents, they are also more open to institutionalized services than in the past.
Induction of a bZIP Type Transcription Factor and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Soybean Seedling in Response to Starvation Stress
Takashi Yuasa,Yuri Nagasawa,Katsumasa Osanai,Ayami Kaneko,Daichi Tajima,Nang Myint Phyu Sin Htwe,Yushi Ishibashi,Mari Iwaya-Inoue
Journal of Botany , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/935479
Abstract: To address roles of bZIP transcription factors on regulation of amino acid catabolism under autophagy-induced plant cells, we examined the effect of nutrient starvation on the expression of low energy stress-related transcription factor homologs, GmbZIP53A and GmbZIP53B, and amino acid catabolism-related genes in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Sucrose starvation treatment significantly enhanced the expressions of GmbZIP53A, but not GmbZIP53B asparagine synthase (GmASN1), proline dehydrogenase1 (GmProDH), and branched chain amino acid transaminase 3 (GmBCAT3). GmbZIP53-related immunoreactive signals were upregulated under severe starvation with sucrose starvation and protease inhibitors, while 3% sucrose and sucrose starvation had no or marginal effects on the signal. Profiles of induction of GmASN1, GmProDH and GmBCAT3 under various nutrient conditions were consistent with the profiles of GmbZIP53 protein levels but not with those of GmbZIP mRNA levels. These results indicate that GmbZIP53 proteins levels are regulated by posttranslational mechanism in response to severe starvation stress and that the increased protein of GmbZIP53 under severe starvation accelerates transcriptional induction of GmASN1, GmProDH, and GmBCAT3. Furthermore, it is conceivable that decrease of branched chain amino acid level by the BCAT-mediated degradation eventually enhances autophagy under severe starvation. 1. Introduction The perception and management of nutrient and energy levels in organisms are crucial for survival by adjusting metabolism to available resources. Recent studies revealed that sugar signals in higher plants activate various biological modules such as sugar sensor, transcription factors, sugar transporters, and metabolic enzymes of sugar and amino acids [1, 2]. In higher plants, sugar deprivation and/or low energy stress by decreased photosynthesis have appeared to induce protein degradation via autophagy and amino acid metabolism, leading to translocation of nutrients and senescence [3, 4]. Recently accumulated studies on bZIP type transcription factors of Arabidopsis concerning nutrient signal and amino acid metabolism have unveiled that a set of bZIP transcription factors, bZIP1 and bZIP53, classified to S-type subgroup among the bZIP superfamily, are master regulatory components in transcriptional induction of amino acid catabolism-related enzymes involved in low energy stress, sucrose starvation, and senescence-induced nutrient translocation [5–7]. Sucrose starvation and/or low energy stress activate bZIP1 and bZIP53a by transcriptional and
The cutting construction of toric symplectic and contact manifolds
Yushi Okitsu
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We introduce the cutting construction of possibly non-compact symplectic toric manifolds, in particular, toric symplectic cones that correspond to a weakly convex good cone. Since the symplectization of a toric contact manifold is a toric symplectic cone, we can also construct toric contact manifolds that correspond to a weakly convex good cone by the cutting construction. (Note that these toric contact manifolds can not be constructed by Delzant construction.) We further prove there are no toric Sasakian structures on these contact manifolds. From this, contact toric manifolds of toric K-contact type are of toric Sasakian type.
Historic Behaviour for Quenched Random Expanding Maps on the Circle
Yushi Nakano
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Takens constructed a residual subset of the state space consisting of initial points with historic behaviour for expanding maps on the circle. We prove that this statistical property of expanding maps on the circle is preserved under small quenched random perturbations. The proof is given by establishing a random Markov partition, which follows from a random version of Shub's Theorem on topological conjugacy with the folding maps. As a by-product, we obtain a new formula for the unique absolutely continuous ergodic invariant probability measure of random expanding maps on the circle.
Stochastic Stability for Fiber Expanding Maps via a Perturbative Spectral Approach
Yushi Nakano
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider small perturbations of expanding maps induced by skew-product mappings whose base dynamics are not invertible necessarily. Adopting a previously developed perturbative spectral approach, we show stability of the densities of the unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measures for expanding maps under these perturbations, and upper bounds on the rate of exponential decay of fiber correlations associated to the measures as the noise level goes to zero.
QoE Assessment of Will Transmission Using Vision and Haptics in Networked Virtual Environment  [PDF]
Pingguo Huang, Yutaka Ishibashi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.78029

In this paper, we handle collaborative work in which two users move an object together to eliminate a target in a 3-D virtual space. In the work, the users transmit their wills about movement direction of the object to each other by only haptics and by haptics and vision (including with/ without drawing an arrow to indicate the direction of force applied to the object by the other user). We carry out QoE (Quality of Experience) assessment subjectively and objectively to investigate the influence of network delay on will transmission. As a result, we clarify the effects of vision on the transmissibility of haptic will transmission.

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