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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32774 matches for " Yunlong Huang "
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STAT1 Regulates Human Glutaminase 1 Promoter Activity through Multiple Binding Sites in HIV-1 Infected Macrophages
Lixia Zhao, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076581
Abstract: Mononuclear phagocytes (MP, macrophages and microglia), the main targets of HIV-1 infection in the brain, play a pathogenic role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) through the production and release of various soluble neurotoxic factors including glutamate. We have previously reported that glutaminase (GLS), the glutamate-generating enzyme, is upregulated in HIV-1 infected MP and in the brain tissues of HIV dementia individuals, and that HIV-1 or interferon-α (IFN-α) regulates human glutaminase 1 (GLS1) promoter through signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation in macrophages. However, there are multiple putative STAT1 binding sites in human GLS1 promoter, the exact molecular mechanism of how HIV-1 or IFN-α regulates human GLS1 promoter remains unclear. To further study the function of the putative STAT1 binding sites, we mutated the sequence of each binding site to ACTAGTCTC and found that six mutants (mut 1,3,4,5,7,8) had significantly higher promoter activity and two mutants (mut 2 and mut 6) completely lost the promoter activity compared with the wild type. To determine whether sites 2 and 6 could interfere with other inhibitory sites, particularly the nearby inhibitory sites 3 and 5, we made double mutants dmut 2/3 and dmut 5/6, and found that both the double mutants had significantly higher activity than the wild type, indicating that sites 3 and 5 are critical inhibitory elements, while sites 2 and 6 are excitatory elements. ChIP assay verified that STAT1 could bind with sites 2/3 and 5/6 within human GLS1 promoter in IFN-α stimulated or HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophages. Interestingly, we found that rat Gls1 promoter was regulated through a similar way as human GLS1 promoter. Together, our data identified critical elements that regulate GLS1 promoter activity.
An Application of Sinc Sum Function in Hilbert Transformer  [PDF]
Yunlong Wang
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55A001
Abstract: An application of the sinc sum function in Hilbert transformer (HT) is studied. The expression of the frequency re- sponse of HT is expressed with sinc sum functions. Some properties of sub-amplitude response of HT are proved by using the properties of the sinc sum function. A general HT formula is obtained theoretically and it contains a general window function. As an example three new window functions are obtained. Different from the existing window func- tions obtained from lowpass filters, these window functions are obtained directly from HT. Comparisons show that new windows are better than the Hanning, Hamming, Blackman and Kaiser windows in terms of HT performances.
Analysis of simple sequence repeats markers derived from Phytophthora sojae expressed sequence tags
Zhendong Zhu,Yunlong Huo,Xiaoming Wang,Junbin Huang,Xiaofei Wu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2004, DOI: 10.1360/04wc0248
Abstract: Five thousand and eight hundred publicly available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Phytophthora sojae were electronically searched and 415 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 369 ESTs. The average density of SSRs was one SSR per 8.9 kb of EST sequence screened. The most frequent repeats were trinucleotide repeats (50.1%) and the least frequent were tetranucleotide repeats (8.2%). Forty primer pairs were designed and tested on 5 strains of P. sojae. Thirty-three primer pairs had successful PCR amplifications. Of the 33 functional primer pairs, 28 primer pairs produced characteristic SSR bands of the expected size, and 15 primer pairs (45.5%) detected polymorphism among 5 tested strains of P. sojae. Based on the polymorphisms detected with 20 EST-SSR markers, the 5 tested strains of P. sojae were clustered into 3 groups. In this study, the SSR markers of P. sojae were developed for the first time. These markers could be useful for identification, genetic variation study, and molecular mapping of P. sojae and its relative species.
Dynamic Pricing Model for the Operation of Closed-Loop Supply Chain System  [PDF]
Jiawang Xu, Yunlong Zhu
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2011.24048
Abstract: A class of closed-loop supply chain system consisting of one manufacturer and one supplier is designed, in which re-distribution, remanufacturing and reuse are considered synthetically. The manufacturer is in charge of recollecting and re-disposal the used products. Demands of ultimate products and collecting quantity of used products are described as the function of prices and reference prices. A non-linear dynamic pricing model for this closed-loop supply chain is established. A numerical example is designed, and the results of this example verified the model’s validity to price for the operation of closed-loop supply chain system.
Different Motivations of Chinese Students Learning Japanese and English in Japan  [PDF]
Yunlong Liu, Lezhou Su
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2016.61003
Abstract: As literacy in English and Japanese is usually a part of requirements for international students applying for Japanese universities, Chinese students in Japan, like other international students whose first language is neither English nor Japanese, have to engage in learning the two foreign languages simultaneously. The focus of this research is on the learning motivations of this Chinese student population. It attempts to judge whether differences exist in terms of motivations between their English and Japanese learning; and if so, what differences are there? It also aims to investigate what variables might influence their self-regulation of Japanese and English respectively. A survey of 46 subjects was conducted using a questionnaire with questions related to ideal L2 self, international orientation, self-efficacy beliefs, instrumentality, intrinsic motivation, motivated behavior, language learning anxiety, self-regulation, learning experience, peer pressure, parent encouragement and the role of teachers. The results of Independent Sample t-Test seem to suggest that there are distinctive differences between English learning and Japanese learning in terms of motivation. Regression analysis seems to indicate that Chinese students’ self-regulation in Japanese learning differs to some extent from that in English learning in the sense that they tend to be affected by different sets of variables.
Empirical Research on Spillover Effect among Stock, Money and Foreign Exchange Market of China  [PDF]
Yunlong Yu, Dong Liao
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.85047
Abstract: With the openness and marketization of China’s financial market accelerating, the linkage between various financial markets is increasingly significant. By utilizing VAR model and asymmetric GARCH (1,1)-BEKK model, this paper analyzes the price spillover effect and the volatility spillover effect among stocks returns, exchange rate of returns and money rate. The results show that 1) between currency market and stock market there is only unidirectional mean spillover effect from currency market to stock market; 2) however, there exists asymmetrical bidirectional mean spillover effect both between stock market and money market and currency market and money market, which exhibits time-varying variance and volatility persistence; 3) there exists bidirectional volatility spillover effect between currency market and money market, however there is only unidirectional volatility spillover effect from stock market to money market, which is demonstrated from money market to currency market.
An Evanescent Light Wave Cannot Possess a Transverse Spin  [PDF]
Chunfang Li, Yunlong Zhang
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2019.104031
Abstract: It is pointed out that the evanescent light wave occurring at total reflection does not possess a transverse spin angular momentum as Bliokh, Bekshaev, and Nori claimed recently in (2014) Nature Communications, 5,3300. This is not only because of the nonlocality of the photon spin but also because the evanescent wave is such a state whose angular momentum cannot be separated into spin and orbital parts.
Design and Implementation of Distance Teaching Management System Based on Double MVC Structure
一种基于双MVC架构的远程教学管理系统的设计与实现

Liu YunLong,Huang YanBo,Huang Hai,
刘运龙
,黄烟波,黄海

计算机系统应用 , 2006,
Abstract: 本文介绍了一种基于双MVC架构的远程教学管理系统,其详细内容包括系统的主要功能、设计要点及具体实现,最后简要分析了该系统的性能特点。
Type I Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factors Regulate TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) in HIV-1-Infected Macrophages
Yunlong Huang, Angelique Walstrom, Luwen Zhang, Yong Zhao, Min Cui, Ling Ye, Jialin C. Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005397
Abstract: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF family that participates in HIV-1 pathogenesis through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. TRAIL is expressed on the cell membrane of peripheral immune cells and can be cleaved into a soluble, secreted form. The regulation of TRAIL in macrophages during HIV-1 infection is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages, an important cell type in HIV-1 pathogenesis. A human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) culture system was infected with macrophage-tropic HIV-1ADA, HIV-1JR-FL, or HIV-1BAL strains. TRAIL, predominantly the membrane-bound form, increased following HIV-1 infection. We found that HIV-1 infection also induced interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1, IRF-7 gene expression and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Small interfering RNA knockdown of IRF-1 or IRF-7, but not IRF-3, reduced STAT1 activation and TRAIL expression. Furthermore, the upregulation of IRF-1, IRF-7, TRAIL, and the activation of STAT1 by HIV-1 infection was reduced by the treatment of type I interferon (IFN)-neutralizing antibodies. In addition, inhibition of STAT1 by fludarabine abolished IRF-1, IRF-7, and TRAIL upregulation. We conclude that IRF-1, IRF-7, type I IFNs, and STAT1 form a signaling feedback loop that is critical in regulating TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages.
Interferon-α Regulates Glutaminase 1 Promoter through STAT1 Phosphorylation: Relevance to HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders
Lixia Zhao, Yunlong Huang, Changhai Tian, Lynn Taylor, Norman Curthoys, Yi Wang, Hamilton Vernon, Jialin Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032995
Abstract: HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) develop during progressive HIV-1 infection and affect up to 50% of infected individuals. Activated microglia and macrophages are critical cell populations that are involved in the pathogenesis of HAND, which is specifically related to the production and release of various soluble neurotoxic factors including glutamate. In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamate is typically derived from glutamine by mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase. Our previous study has shown that glutaminase is upregulated in HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) and microglia. However, how HIV-1 leads to glutaminase upregulation, or how glutaminase expression is regulated in general, remains unclear. In this study, using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system, we demonstrated that interferon (IFN) α specifically activated the glutaminase 1 (GLS1) promoter. Furthermore, IFN-α treatment increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and glutaminase mRNA and protein levels. IFN-α stimulation of GLS1 promoter activity correlated to STAT1 phosphorylation and was reduced by fludarabine, a chemical that inhibits STAT1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, STAT1 was found to directly bind to the GLS1 promoter in MDM, an effect that was dependent on STAT1 phosphorylation and significantly enhanced by IFN-α treatment. More importantly, HIV-1 infection increased STAT1 phosphorylation and STAT1 binding to the GLS1 promoter, which was associated with increased glutamate levels. The clinical relevance of these findings was further corroborated with investigation of post-mortem brain tissues. The glutaminase C (GAC, one isoform of GLS1) mRNA levels in HIV associated-dementia (HAD) individuals correlate with STAT1 (p<0.01), IFN-α (p<0.05) and IFN-β (p<0.01). Together, these data indicate that both HIV-1 infection and IFN-α treatment increase glutaminase expression through STAT1 phosphorylation and by binding to the GLS1 promoter. Since glutaminase is a potential component of elevated glutamate production during the pathogenesis of HAND, our data will help to identify additional therapeutic targets for the treatment of HAND.
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