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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 359 matches for " Yukiko Senga "
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A Method for Determining Batillaria attramentaria Distribution Using Aerial Balloon Photography and a Vegetation Index Camera: Demonstration at the Yatsu Tidal Flat, Chiba Prefecture  [PDF]
Yohei Shiraki, Toshiyuki Kitazawa, Seongwon Lee, Yukiko Senga
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2018.71002
Abstract: Located in Chiba Prefecture, the Yatsu Tidal Flat is an important stopover for birds migrating between cold regions such as Siberia and warm regions such as Southeast Asia and Australia. Its importance led to its selection in 1993 as the first tidal flat in Japan to be registered under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (the Ramsar Convention). However, the Yatsu Tidal Flat has in more recent years witnessed blooms of Ulva spp. (sea lettuce) and an increase in exotic species such as Batillaria attramentaria (Japanese mud snail) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam), fueling concerns that the increasing spatial domination of the tidal flat by such species and competition with other species for food may drive a decline in the habitat’s self-cleaning capabilities. For this study, we focused on Batillaria attramentaria, which is now so widely distributed in the Yatsu Tidal Flat as to preclude reliable monitoring via aerial photographs or satellite imagery. Accordingly, we tested the utility of a simplified method for obtaining data on the distribution of Batillaria attramentaria by using aerial balloon photography and a vegetation index camera capable of generating NDVI data. Our results show that under certain conditions, this method can indeed be used to determine Batillaria attramentaria distribution.
High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study
Raphael Senga, Prosper Lutala
Conflict and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-5-16
Abstract: Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results.The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location.Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.Syphilis and to some extent other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo), these have been exacerbated by widespread sexual violence. Child soldiers are particularly vulnerable due to several factors: incomplete maturation, low social conditions, use as sexual workers by superiors, and their promiscuous environment. During World Wars I and II and subsequent armed conflicts throughout the world, syphilis has played an unprecedented role in soldier morbidity [1]. The Congo, with almost two decades of armed conflicts, is characterized by widespread sexual violence [2,3]. In the Congo and other African countries, recruitment of child soldiers has been largely practiced despite its war-crime characterization as defined by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court [4].As a war nears its end, disarmament, demobilization, and reinsertion (DDR) of combatants is a compulsory post-conflict step. In the Congo, all child soldiers undergo this process, which allows soldiers who desire, or who are children, to return to civilian life. At the transit camp soldiers undergo compulsory syphilis testing. To prevent possible spread of the disease upon reintegration, those who test positive undergo treatment.Despite a number of studies dealing with syphilis prevalence in various contexts, to our knowledge, little is known about syphilis prevalence in demobilized soldiers, and particularly in c
PICO-PHYTOPLANKTON DISTRIBUTION IN WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN ESTIMATED FROM OCEAN COLOR AND SST
Senga,Yasuhiro; Horiuchi,Tomohiro;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382004000300037
Abstract: to investigate the spatial distribution of pico-phytoplankton in surface water, photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) for three cruises in the western pacific ocean carried out on 2000, 2001 and 2002. analyzed chlorophyll-a showed peaks at the equatorial region and near japan. in contrast, zeaxanthin, a specific pigment of pico-phytoplankton such as synechococcus and prochlorococcus showed a broad peak around equatorial region. from these results, we found inverse relationship between the ratio of zeaxanthin to chlorophyll-a concentration (zcr) and chlorophyll-a concentration, and also positive relationship between zcr and sea surface temperature (sst). and we derived a multiple regression equation to estimate zcr from chlorophyll-a concentration and sst. the equation was applied to estimate spatial distribution of zcr in the pacific ocean using satellite chlorophyll-a images and sst images
PICO-PHYTOPLANKTON DISTRIBUTION IN WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN ESTIMATED FROM OCEAN COLOR AND SST
Yasuhiro Senga,Tomohiro Horiuchi
Gayana (Concepción) , 2004,
Abstract: To investigate the spatial distribution of pico-phytoplankton in surface water, photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for three cruises in the western Pacific Ocean carried out on 2000, 2001 and 2002. Analyzed chlorophyll-a showed peaks at the equatorial region and near Japan. In contrast, zeaxanthin, a specific pigment of pico-phytoplankton such as Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus showed a broad peak around equatorial region. From these results, we found inverse relationship between the ratio of zeaxanthin to chlorophyll-a concentration (ZCR) and chlorophyll-a concentration, and also positive relationship between ZCR and sea surface temperature (SST). And we derived a multiple regression equation to estimate ZCR from chlorophyll-a concentration and SST. The equation was applied to estimate spatial distribution of ZCR in the Pacific Ocean using satellite chlorophyll-a images and SST images
Impurity-induced in-gap state and Tc in sign-reversing s-wave superconductors: analysis of iron oxypnictide superconductors
Yuko Senga,Hiroshi Kontani
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/11/3/035005
Abstract: The sign-reversing fully gapped superconducting state, which is expected to be realized in oxypnictide superconductors, can be prominently affected by nonmagnetic impurities due to the interband scattering of Cooper pairs. We study this problem based on the isotropic two-band BCS model: In oxypnictide superconductors, the interband impurity scattering $I'$ is not equal to the intraband one $I$. In the Born scattering regime, the reduction in Tc is sizable and the impurity-induced density of states (DOS) is prominent if $I\sim I'$, due to the interband scattering. Although impurity-induced DOS can yield a power-law temperature dependence in $1/T_1$, a sizable suppression in Tc is inevitably accompanied. In the unitary scattering regime, in contrast, impurity effect is very small for both Tc and DOS except at $I=I'$. By comparing theory and experiments, we expect that the degree of anisotropy in the $s_\pm$-wave gap function strongly depends on compounds.
Impurity Effects in Sign Reversing Fully-Gapped Superconductors: Analysis of FeAs Superconductors
Y. Senga,H. Kontani
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.77.113710
Abstract: To understand the impurity effect on Tc in FeAs superconductors, we analyze a simple two-band BCS model with repulsive interband interaction. The realized fully-gapped superconducting state with sign reversal, which is predicted by spin fluctuation theories in this compound, is suppressed by impurities due to the interband hopping of Cooper pairs, if the interband impurity scattering $I'$ is equal to the intraband one $I$. When $|I'/I| < 1$, in highly contrast, Tc is almost unchanged by strong impurity scattering since the interband scattering is almost prohibited by the multiple scattering effect. Since $|I'/I| \sim 0.5$ is expected, the robustness of superconductivity against impurities in FeAs superconductors is naturally understood in term of the sign reversing fully-gapped state.
Assessment of Long-Term Compost Application on Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties, as Well as Fertility, of Soil in a Field Subjected to Double Cropping  [PDF]
Yukiko Yanagi, Haruo Shindo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.71004
Abstract: The aim of this article was to assess the influence of long-term application of compost on the physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as the fertility, of soil in a field subjected to double cropping (paddy rice and barley), mainly by integrating previous studies of the effects of compost and manure on soil qualities. Continuous compost application, especially at a high level (30 Mg·ha-1·y-1), into the double cropping soils increased the activities of organic C-, N-, and P-decomposing enzymes and the contents of organic C, total N, and microbial biomass N, as well as the cation exchange capacity, thereby contributing to the enhancement of soil fertility. Also, the compost application increased the degree of water-stable soil macroaggregation (>0.25 mm), which was correlated significantly (r > 0.950, p < 0.05) with the contents of hydrolyzable carbohydrates (with negative charge) and active Al (with positive charge), and resulted in the modification of soil physical properties. Furthermore, the application increased the amount of soil organic matter, including humic acid with a low degree of darkening and fulvic acid, and contributed to C sequestration and storage. Physical fractionation of soil indicated that about 60% of soil organic C was distributed in the silt-sized (2 - 20 μm) aggregate and clay-sized (<2 μm) aggregate fractions, while about 30% existed in the decayed plant fractions (53 - 2000 μm). The results obtained unambiguously indicate that long-term application of compost can improve soil qualities in the field subjected to double cropping, depending on the amount applied.
Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector
Yukiko Yoshida
Carbon Balance and Management , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-1-12
Abstract: The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%.Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.Heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems in buildings are a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the commercial sector. Reduction of this source is a common issue for Asian countries that share similar constraints in developing solutions [1,2].In Japan, a cooperative academic, industrial, and governmental project has been established to develop a new system called the Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE). It evaluates all forms of energy usage within buildings [3].The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH: completed in 2001, ferroconcrete, three floors, 4900 m2 total floor space) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies in Japan was constructed according to the latest sustainable environment designs, including global warming abatement technology for buildings [4].Consumption of electricity for lighting, which is related to the interior heat generation load, changes little from season to season. This building is equipped with 32 W high-frequency fluorescent lights whose intensity is controlled to keep a constant brightness independent of the outdoor brightness. The automatic control of lighting was found to realize approximately 30% in annual energy savings compared to lighting with no auto
Assessment of the health of Americans: the average health-related quality of life and its inequality across individuals and groups
Yukiko Asada
Population Health Metrics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-3-7
Abstract: This study uses the 1990 and 1995 National Health Interview Survey from the United States. The measure of HRQL is the Health and Activity Limitation Index (HALex). The measure of health inequality across individuals is the Gini coefficient. This study provides confidence intervals (CI) for the Gini coefficient by a bootstrap method. To describe health inequality by group, this study decomposes the overall Gini coefficient into the between-group, within-group, and overlap Gini coefficient using race (White, Black, and other) as an example. This study looks at how much contribution the overlap Gini coefficient makes to the overall Gini coefficient, in addition to the absolute mean differences between groups.The average HALex was the same in 1990 (0.87, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.88) and 1995 (0.87, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.87). The Gini coefficient for the HALex distribution across individuals was greater in 1995 (0.097, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.099) than 1990 (0.092, 95% CI: 0.091, 0.094). Differences in the average HALex between all racial groups were the same in 1995 as 1990. The contribution of the overlap to the overall Gini coefficient was greater in 1995 than in 1990 by 2.4%. In both years, inequality between racial groups accounted only for 4–5% of overall inequality.The average HRQL of Americans was the same in 1990 and 1995, but inequality in HRQL across individuals was greater in 1995 than 1990. Inequality in HRQL by race was smaller in 1995 than 1990 because race had smaller effect on the way health was distributed in 1995 than 1990. Analysis of the average HRQL and its inequality provides information on the health of a population invisible in the traditional analysis of population health.To assess the health of a population, we have traditionally relied on the average or overall level of health in a population. For example, 77.2 years of life expectancy for Americans in 2001 [1] or an infant mortality rate of 6.8 per 1,000 in the United States in 2001 [2] provide some information ab
The Influence of Learning Beliefs in Peer-advising Sessions: Promoting Independent Language Learning
Yukiko Ishikawa
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This qualitative study was conducted in order to explore interaction between advisors and advisees in peer-advising sessions conducted with a view of promoting independent language study. The data was collected through observation, documentation, and interviews with a newly-trained and relatively inexperienced student peer-advisor. The data was transcribed and coded for closer analysis. The study revealed that the advice which the student advisor gave to peers was very much influenced by her own language study experience and beliefs, especially with regard to grammar-focused study and time-management methods. Moreover, the data offered a number of interesting observations, such as a feeling of relatedness between peers, and a conflict between being strict and being generous. In this article, the author will discuss the areas in which the student advisor’s own beliefs were most reflected in her advising. Other observations from the data will also be highlighted.
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