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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1049 matches for " Yuki Shuto "
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Characterization of Pancreatic Islets in Two Selectively Bred Mouse Lines with Different Susceptibilities to High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance
Mototsugu Nagao, Akira Asai, Wataru Inaba, Momoyo Kawahara, Yuki Shuto, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Daisuke Sanoyama, Hitoshi Sugihara, Soroku Yagihashi, Shinichi Oikawa
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084725
Abstract: Hereditary predisposition to diet-induced type 2 diabetes has not yet been fully elucidated. We recently established 2 mouse lines with different susceptibilities (resistant and prone) to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance by selective breeding (designated selectively bred diet-induced glucose intolerance-resistant [SDG-R] and -prone [SDG-P], respectively). To investigate the predisposition to HFD-induced glucose intolerance in pancreatic islets, we examined the islet morphological features and functions in these novel mouse lines. Male SDG-P and SDG-R mice were fed a HFD for 5 weeks. Before and after HFD feeding, glucose tolerance was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Morphometry and functional analyses of the pancreatic islets were also performed before and after the feeding period. Before HFD feeding, SDG-P mice showed modestly higher postchallenge blood glucose levels and lower insulin increments in OGTT than SDG-R mice. Although SDG-P mice showed greater β cell proliferation than SDG-R mice under HFD feeding, SDG-P mice developed overt glucose intolerance, whereas SDG-R mice maintained normal glucose tolerance. Regardless of whether it was before or after HFD feeding, the isolated islets from SDG-P mice showed impaired glucose- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion relative to those from SDG-R mice; accordingly, the expression levels of the insulin secretion-related genes in SDG-P islets were significantly lower than those in SDG-R islets. These findings suggest that the innate predispositions in pancreatic islets may determine the susceptibility to diet-induced diabetes. SDG-R and SDG-P mice may therefore be useful polygenic animal models to study the gene–environment interactions in the development of type 2 diabetes.
An Empirical Investigation of Common Sense of Land Use from a Statistical Approach  [PDF]
Yuki Hanashima
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.42014
Abstract: Recently, ontological study has been one of the key concerns of geographic information science, a number of studies have been conducted in both of philosophical and knowledge engineering approach. Some studies pointed out the importance of human cognition and social context for development of ontologies. This paper presents empirical investigation of common sense of land use categories for development of suitable ontologies for each cultural or speech communities. Distinctions and characteristics in perceiving land use categories were described by a psychological method that was submitted to Japanese graduate and undergraduate students. In addition the results were analyzed using corresponddence analysis, a statistical technique for categorical data. This analysis serves to clarify the dominant determining factors for land use categories.
Safety and Efficacy of Combination Therapy with Insulin Glargine and Oral Hypoglycaemic Agents Including DPP-4 Inhibitors in Japanese T2DM Patients: ALOHA 2 Study, a Post-Marketing Surveillance for Lantus®  [PDF]
Masayuki Kobayashi, Shoko Tsukube, Yukio Ikeda, Yujin Shuto
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.44039
Abstract: Aims: In the Add-on Lantus® to Oral Hypoglycaemic Agents 2 (ALOHA 2) Study in Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), data on the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with insulin glargine (Lantus®) and oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs (OADs) including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in a real-life setting were collected and analyzed. Methods: This postmarketing surveillance was a prospective, observational, 24-week study that complied with the pharmaceutical affairs law and the ministerial ordinance of “Good Post-Marketing Study Practice (GPSP)” in Japan. Safety, efficacy and patient-reported outcomes (PROs); patients’ satisfaction with treatment (DTSQs and DTSQc) and patients’ self-reported health (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS) of combination therapy of insulin glargine and OADs were evaluated. Results: A total of 2,630 patients were enrolled. Of the 2,602 patients in the safety analysis population, 161 patients experienced 175 cases of adverse drug reactions, and the major adverse drug reaction was hypoglycaemia (140 patients, 5.38%). Out of those with hypoglycaemia, 11 patients (0.42%) had severe hypoglycaemia and the incidence rate (episodes per patient-year) was 0.019. Basal supported oral therapy (BOT) with insulin glargine substantially reduced the HbA1c, FPG and 2 hour-PPG levels for 24 weeks by -1.61%, -54.4 mg/dL and -74.5 mg/dL respectively. The mean weight was increased, however the change was +0.50 kg. In addition, the treatment satisfaction scores of DTSQs (mean treatment satisfaction score increased 3.6 from baseline to last observation) and DTSQc, EQ-5D index scores and EQ-VAS scores were significantly improved. Conclusion: Insulin glargine and OADs combination therapy was suggested to be effective and well tolerated. Patients’ satisfaction with treatment and their self-reported health improved in spite of the addition of injections to oral agents. The combination therapy of insulin glargine and OADs including DPP-4 inhibitors is likely to be considered an important therapeutic option in the diabetic patients.
Simulation of Human Phonation with Vocal Nodules  [PDF]
Shinji Deguchi, Yuki Kawahara
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2011.13022
Abstract: The geometric and biomechanical properties of the larynx strongly influence voice quality and efficiency. A physical understanding of phonation natures in pathological conditions is important for predictions of how voice disorders can be treated using therapy and rehabilitation. Here, we present a continuum-based numerical model of phonation that considers complex fluid-structure interactions occurring in the airway. This model considers a three-dimensional geometry of vocal folds, muscle contractions, and viscoelastic properties to provide a realistic framework of phonation. The vocal fold motion is coupled to an unsteady compressible respiratory flow, allowing numerical simulations of normal and diseased phonations to derive clear relationships between actual laryngeal structures and model parameters such as muscle activity. As a pilot analysis of diseased phonation, we model vocal nodules, the mass lesions that can appear bilaterally on both sides of the vocal folds. Comparison of simulations with and without the nodules demonstrates how the lesions affect vocal fold motion, consequently restricting voice quality. Furthermore, we found that the minimum lung pressure required for voice production increases as nodules move closer to the center of the vocal fold. Thus, simulations using the developed model may provide essential insight into complex phonation phenomena and further elucidate the etiologic mechanisms of voice disorders.
A Study of Service Desk Setup in Implementing IT Service Management in Enterprises  [PDF]
Xiaojun Tang, Yuki Todo
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.43022
Abstract: Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) provides a framework to provide IT related services and the interaction of IT staff with users, and is often related with the British Government’s Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL). ITIL offers a set of “best practices” for managing IT services and is one of the most widely accepted approaches to IT service management in the world. Recently, more and more enterprises implemented a centralized IT service management model based on the ITIL framework. However, even by adopting ITIL, most of the enterprises didn’t improve their IT service management level. Some factors become the barriers to the success of ITIL and ITSM implementation. In some cases, enterprises paid more attention to IT infrastructure setup and operation but neglect the importance of Service Desk. In this study, we first review ITSM, ITIL and Service Desk. Second, we identify a full function of new Service Desk and how to setup a good Service Desk. Enterprises should take proper measures in building a mature Service Desk to ensure successful implementation of ITSM.
Performance of Thermal Energy Storage Unit Using Solid Ammoniated Salt (CaCl2-NH3 System)  [PDF]
Yuki Sakamoto, Hideki Yamamoto
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.58031
Abstract:
The exothermic chemical reaction of CaCl2 (calcium chloride) with NH3 (ammonia) can be utilized as an energy storage system. Since this reaction is a typical gas-solid reaction, the reaction rate is controlled by the heat transfer rate. In order to improve the low heat transfer rate of the ammoniation and the deammoniation of CaCl2, the influence of a heat transfer media (Ti: titanium) on the heat transfer rate of the solid ammoniated salt (CaCl2.mNH3) was studied and tested experimentally. The performance tests were carried out under the conditions of various weight ratios of Ti. No decrease of the activation of chemical reaction and no corrosion of experimental apparatus were observed on the repeated runs (≥30 times each). The heat transfer rate of ammoniated salt was greatly improved by adding Ti under the constant pressure (0.5 MPa). The reaction time required for the ammoniation of CaCl2 mixed with Ti was approximately 16% - 54% shorter than that of CaCl2 alone, and the reaction time required for the deammoniation was also approximately 19% - 59% shorter than that of CaCl2 alone.
Measurement of Thermophysical Property of Energy Storage System (CaCl2.NH3 System)  [PDF]
Yuki Sakamoto, Hideki Yamamoto
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.512060
Abstract: In order to measure the thermophysical properties of ammoniated salt (CaCl2.mNH3: m = 4, 8) as an energy storage system utilizing natural resources, the measurement unit was developed, and the thermophysical properties (effective thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) of CaCl2.mNH3 and CaCl2.mNH3 with heat transfer media (Ti: titanium) were measured by the any heating method. The effective thermal conductivities of CaCl2.4NH3 + Ti and CaCl2.8NH3 + Ti were 0.14 - 0.17 and 0.18 - 0.20 W/(m.K) in the measuring temperature range of 290 - 350 K, respectively, and these values were approximately 1.5 - 2.2 times larger than those of CaCl2.4NH3 and CaCl2.8NH3. The effective thermal diffusivities were 0.22 - 0.24 × 10-6 and 0.18 - 0.19 × 10-6 m2/sin the measuring temperature range of 290 - 350 K, respectively, and these values were approximately 1.3 - 1.5 times larger than those of CaCl2.4NH3 and CaCl2.8NH3. The obtained results show that the thermophysical properties have a dependence on the bulk densities and specific heats of CaCl2.mNH3 and
Relationship between the Concentration of Impurity and Albedo in Snow Surface  [PDF]
Yuki Komuro, Toshitaka Suzuki
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.54034
Abstract: Recent decline of cryosphere typified by retreat of glaciers is often explained by temperature rise due to global warming. However, the existence of glaciers shrinking since before 1950s warming accelerated suggested that decline of cryosphere may be due to not only temperature rise, but also another possibility. As a possible cause of snow and ice melting, it has been pointed out that the surface albedo reduction due to increase of snow impurity, aeolian dust and anthropogenic pollutant, for example. To clarify the quantitative relationship between albedo and impurity in snow surface, we investigated the correlativity of turbidity and metal concentration in snow to the snow surface albedo from the simultaneous observations on the snow-covered area in Yamagata, Japan. The observed albedo shows a tendency of decrease with the turbidity increase in snow surface, we could find strong correlation between the albedo and the turbidity in 76% of contribution factor using logarithmic regression analysis. The relationship of albedo to total concentration of Fe and Al in snow surface shows the similar tendency to turbidity, we could model the relationship using logarithmic equation with high value of contribution ratio, 74% and 66%, respectively. The concentration ratio of Fe/Al is nearly constant with about 0.75, which is close to mean crustal ratio of both elements, therefore, it can be said there is a strong correlation between the albedo and the concentration of mineral particle in snow surface. We cannot find a significant correlation between the albedo and total concentration of Na in snow surface. It can be considered that Na existed as dissolved ion has not significant effect to the albedo in snow surface. These results indicate that the snow albedo correlates strongly with the particulate matter in snow surface, which is typified by mineral particle.
A New Type of Bridge, Mobilebridge? to Super-Quickly Recover a Bridge  [PDF]
Ichiro Ario, Yuki Chikahiro
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C025
Abstract:

Many natural disasters cause not only critical situations for facilities and resident’s residents’ life, but also significant damage to economy. It is obvious that quick rescue action must be undertaken and that there are many problems due to the occurrence of secondary disasters at rescue worksite. Basing Based on the previous study of deployable structures and the concept of the multi-folding micro-structures, we propose a new type of foldable bridge in form of scissor structure called the Mobile-bridge?. In this paper, we discuss the vehicle passing test performed on the real-scale Mobile-bridge in order to evaluate its mechanical characteristics and application limits. Moreover, we verified the compatibility between the result of calculations and experiments by means of theoretical modelling. The results show that it is sufficient to treat the load as equivalent nodal forces applied at the joints without including the stiffness of the deck.

Socially Anxious Tendencies Affect Autonomic Responses during Eye Gaze Perception  [PDF]
Yuki Tsuji, Sotaro Shimada
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.613160
Abstract: Social anxiety disorder is a common psychiatric disorder. The gaze of others is known to frequently induce social anxiety. We conducted a gaze detection experiment to examine the effects of social anxiety on autonomic response, namely heart rate (HR) response. We used the maximum HR deceleration between 0 s and 3 s after stimulus onset as an indicator of emotional stress. Participants were assigned to a high social anxiety (HSA) or low social anxiety (LSA) group on the basis of cut-off scores indicative of clinical levels of stress as per the Japanese version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-J). Our results showed that HR deceleration was greater for the HSA compared with the LSA group. Moreover, the higher the LSAS-J score was, the greater the increase was in HR deceleration (correlation coefficient rs = 0.52, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that the eye gaze of others can be processed as a threat in individuals with a high tendency towards social anxiety.
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