Accurately recognizing others’ faces is
very important for living successfully in the society. However, we often fail
to recognize them. What causes such a problem? Numerous psychological studies
reported that the performance of facial recognition was influenced by prior
mental activities, so-called carry-over effect. It is considered that mental
activities have two types of processing style, global processing and local
processing. Global processing refers to attend the general meaning of an event.
Local processing refers to attend to elements themselves. Recent studies showed
that prior mental activities requiring local processing interfered with face
recognition. However, it is still controversial whether or not this
interference on recognition occurs only in face recognition. Here, in order to
investigate if face is special for recognition, we conducted the experiments in
which participants were required a prior mental activity and a following
recognition task. As the prior mental activity, we used an imagination task in
which participants were asked to imagine a faraway place (global processing) or
a nearby place (local processing). The face and the scene picture recognition
tasks were used as recognition tasks. Our results showed that the accuracy of
face recognition after imagining the nearby place was worse than that after
imagining the faraway place. Additionally, the same pattern was observed for
scene picture recognition. The results suggest that local processing at the
imagination task was carried over into not only face recognition but also scene
recognition, and that local processing harmed these recognition tasks.

Abstract:
The revelation effect is a phenomenon wherein performing a cognitive task before a recognition judgment induces “old” responses. One of the theories for the occurrence mechanism of the revelation effect is the criterion shift account (Niewiadomski & Hockley, 2001). This account explains that because working memory is occupied when people solve a cognitive task, they adopt a more liberal criterion for recognition judgments immediately after a cognitive task than those with no preceding cognitive task. However, no studies of the revelation effect in which manipulation of working memory was intended have been conducted. We examined whether working memory load and capacity are related to the revelation effect. The results showed that neither the occurrence of the revelation effect nor its degree was affected by working memory load or capacity. As the results suggest working memory is not related to the revelation effect, a partially or entirely alternative account that can explain the revelation effect is needed.

Abstract:
In a certain class of differential-difference equations for dissipative systems, we show that hyperbolic tangent model is the only the nonlinear system of equations which can admit some particular solutions of the Toda lattice. We give one parameter family of exact solutions, which include as special cases the Toda lattice solutions as well as the Whitham's solutions in the Newell's model. Our solutions can be used to describe temporal-spatial density patterns observed in the optimal velocity model for traffic flow.

Abstract:
Using the average action defined with a continuum analog of the block spin transformation, we show the presence of gauge symmetry along the Wilsonian renormalization group flow. As a reflection of the gauge symmetry, the average action satisfies the quantum master equation(QME). We show that the quantum part of the master equation is naturally understood once the measure contribution under the BRS transformation is taken into account. Furthermore an effective BRS transformation acting on macroscopic fields may be defined from the QME. The average action is explicitly evaluated in terms of the saddle point approximation up to one-loop order. It is confirmed that the action satisfies the QME and the flow equation.

Abstract:
We show that symmetries are preserved exactly along the (Wilsonian) renormalization group flow, though the IR cutoff deforms concrete forms of the transformations. For a gauge theory the cutoff dependent Ward-Takahashi identity is written as the master equation in the antifield formalism: one may read off the renormalized BRS transformation from the master equation. The Maxwell theory is studied explicitly to see how it works. The renormalized BRS transformation becomes non-local but keeps off-shell nilpotency. Our formalism is applicable for a generic global symmetry. The master equation considered for the chiral symmetry provides us with the continuum analog of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and the L{\" u}scher's symmetry.

Abstract:
For D=4 theories of a single U(1) gauge field strength coupled to gravity and matters, we show that the electric-magnetic duality can be formulated as an invariance of the actions. The symmetry is associated with duality rotation acting directly on the gauge field. The rotation is constructed in flat space, and an extension to curved spaces is also given. It is non-local and non-covariant, yet generates off-shell extended transformation of the field strength. The algebraic condition of Gaillard and Zumino turns out to be a necessary and sufficient condition for the invariance of actions. It may be used as a guiding principle in constructing self-dual actions in string and field theories.

Abstract:
We establish self-duality of super D3-brane theory as an exact symmetry of the action both in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism. In the Lagrangian formalism, the action is shown to satisfy the Gaillard-Zumino condition. This algebraic relation is recognized in our previous paper to be a necessary and sufficient condition for generic action of U(1) gauge field strength coupled with gravity and matters to be self-dual. For the super D3-brane action, SO(2) duality transformation of a world-volume gauge field should be associated with SO(2) rotation of fermionic brane coordinates in N=2 SUSY multiplet. This SO(2) duality symmetry is lifted to SL(2,R) symmetry in the presence of a dilaton and an axion background fields. In the canonical formalism, we show that the duality rotation is described by a canonical transformation, and the Hamiltonian of the D3-brane action is invariant under the transformation.

Abstract:
Recently we made a proposal for realization of an effective BRS symmetry along the Wilsonian renormalization group flow. In this paper we show that the idea can be naturally extended for the most general gauge theories. Extensive use of the antifield formalism is made to reveal some remarkable structure of the effective BRS symmetry. The average action defined with a continuum analog of the block spin transformation obeys the quantum master equation (QME), provided that an UV action does so. We show that the RG flow described by the exact flow equations is generated by canonical transformations in the field-antifield space. Using the relation between the average action and the Legendre effective action, we establish the equivalence between the QME for the average action and the modified Ward-Takahashi identity for the Legendre action. The QME remains intact when the regularization is removed.

Abstract:
Using the Pauli-Villars regularization, we make a perturbative analysis of the quantum master equation (QME), $\Sigma =0$, for the Wilsonian effective action. It is found that the QME for the UV action determines whether exact gauge symmetry is realized along the renormalization group (RG) flow. The basic task of solving the QME can be reduced to compute the Troost-van Niuwenhuizen-Van Proyen jacobian factor for the classical UV action. When the QME cannot be satisfied, the non-vanishing $\Sigma$ is proportional to a BRS anomaly, which is shown to be preserved along the RG flow. To see how the UV action fulfills the QME in anomaly free theory, we calculate the jacobian factor for a pure Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions.

Abstract:
We present a method to solve the master equation for the Wilsonian action in the antifield formalism. This is based on a representation theory for cutoff dependent global symmetries along the Wilsonian renormalization group (RG) flow. For the chiral symmetry, the master equation for the free theory yields a continuum version of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. We construct chiral invariant operators describing fermionic self-interactions. The use of canonically transformed variables is shown to simplify the underlying algebraic structure of the symmetry. We also give another non-trivial example, a realization of SU(2) vector symmetry. Our formalism may be used for a non-perturbative truncation of the Wilsonian action preserving global symmetries.