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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2789 matches for " Yuji Hayashi "
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Spin Polarization at Semiconductor Point Contacts in Absence of Magnetic Field
Mikio Eto,Tetsuya Hayashi,Yuji Kurotani
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.74.1934
Abstract: Semiconductor point contacts can be a useful tool for producing spin-polarized currents in the presence of spin-orbit (SO) interaction. Neither magnetic fields nor magnetic materials are required. By numerical studies, we show that (i) the conductance is quantized in units of 2e^2/h unless the SO interaction is too strong, (ii) the current is spin-polarized in the transverse direction, and (iii) a spin polarization of more than 50% can be realized with experimentally accessible values of the SO interaction strength. The spin-polarization ratio is determined by the adiabaticity of the transition between subbands of different spins during the transport through the point contacts.
Development of a Coil-Shape Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactor for a Practical and Long-Term Usable Air-Cleaner  [PDF]
Tsuyoshi Ochiai, Yuji Hayashi, Erina Ichihashi, Tadashi Machida, Yoshitsugu Uchida, Shoko Tago, Yuko Morito, Akira Fujishima
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.58055
Abstract: A novel air-cleaner with a coil-shape photocatalysis-plasma synergistic reactor was developed. The air-cleaner showed 95% ± 1% reduction of a TVOCs concentration in tobacco smoke at “single-pass” condition. Air-purification activity of the air-cleaner was stably-maintained after the treatment of 12,000 cigarettes of tobacco smoke.
Recent Advances in Sensing Oropharyngeal Swallowing Function in Japan
Takahiro Ono,Kazuhiro Hori,Yuji Masuda,Toyohiko Hayashi
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100100176
Abstract: Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is an important issue in the elderly because it causes aspiration pneumonia, which is the second largest cause of death in this group. It also causes decline in activities of daily living and quality of life. The oral phase of swallowing has been neglected, despite its importance in the evaluation of dysphagia, because adequate protocols and measuring devices are unavailable. However, recent advances in sensor technology have enabled straightforward, non-invasive measurement of the movement of important swallowing-related organs such as the lips and tongue, as well as the larynx. In this article, we report the present state and possibility of clinical application of such systems developed in Japan.
Amphiregulin and Epiregulin mRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastases
Hidekazu Kuramochi, Go Nakajima, Yuka Kaneko, Ayako Nakamura, Yuji Inoue, Masakazu Yamamoto, Kazuhiko Hayashi
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-88
Abstract: One hundred twenty colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases (100 with synchronous metastases, 20 with metachronous) were evaluated. No patients had ever received anti-EGFR antibody agents. AREG and EREG mRNA expression from both the primary tumor and liver metastases were measured using real-time RT-PCR. KRAS codon 12, 13 mutation status was analyzed by direct sequencing.Modest, but significant, correlations were observed between primary tumor and corresponding liver metastases in both AREG mRNA expression (Rs = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and EREG mRNA expression (Rs = 0.58, p < 0.0001). AREG and EREG mRNA expression was strongly correlated in both the primary tumor (Rs = 0.81, p < 0.0001) and the liver metastases (Rs = 0.87, p < 0.0001). No significant survival difference was observed between low and high AREG or EREG patients when all 120 patients were analyzed. However, when divided by KRAS status, KRAS wild-type patients with low EREG mRNA levels in the primary site showed significantly better overall survival rates than those with high levels (p = 0.018). In multivariate analysis, low EREG expression was significantly associated with better overall survival (p = 0.006).AREG and EREG expression showed a modest correlation between primary tumor and liver metastases. As EREG mRNA expression was associated with decreased survival, it is appeared to be a useful prognostic marker in KRAS wild-type patients who never received anti-EGFR therapy.Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to be involved in signaling pathways affecting cellular growth, differentiation, and proliferation [1]. To block the activation of this receptor, the anti-EGFR antibody agents Cetuximab and Panitumumab have been developed, and offer promising results for cases of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) [2-4]. Recently, several clinical trials demonstrated that somatic mutations in KRAS are associated with a lack of sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibody agents [5-7], suggesting that KRAS is
Neural Activity Changes Associated with Impulsive Responding in the Sustained Attention to Response Task
Hiroyuki Sakai, Yuji Uchiyama, Duk Shin, Masamichi J. Hayashi, Norihiro Sadato
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067391
Abstract: Humans can anticipate and prepare for uncertainties to achieve a goal. However, it is difficult to maintain this effort over a prolonged period of time. Inappropriate behavior is impulsively (or mindlessly) activated by an external trigger, which can result in serious consequences such as traffic crashes. Thus, we examined the neural mechanisms underlying such impulsive responding using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-two participants performed a block-designed sustained attention to response task (SART), where each task block was composed of consecutive Go trials followed by a NoGo trial at the end. This task configuration enabled us to measure compromised preparation for NoGo trials during Go responses using reduced Go reaction times. Accordingly, parametric modulation analysis was conducted on fMRI data using block-based mean Go reaction times as an online marker of impulsive responding in the SART. We found that activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was positively modulated with mean Go reaction times. In addition, activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was negatively modulated with mean Go reaction times, albeit statistically weakly. Taken together, spontaneously reduced activity in the right DLPFC and the IPS and spontaneously elevated activity in the MPFC and the PCC were associated with impulsive responding in the SART. These results suggest that such a spontaneous transition of brain activity pattern results in impulsive responding in monotonous situations, which in turn, might cause human errors in actual work environments.
On the Generalization of Hilbert’s 17th Problem and Pythagorean Fields  [PDF]
Yuji Shimizuike
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.37A001
Abstract:

The notion of preordering, which is a generalization of the notion of ordering, has been introduced by Serre. On the other hand, the notion of round quadratic forms has been introduced by Witt. Based on these ideas, it is here shown that 1) a field F is formally real n-pythagorean iff the nth radical, RnF is a preordering (Theorem 2), and 2) a field F is n-pythagorean iff for any n-fold Pfister form ρ. There exists an odd integer l(>1) such that l×ρ is a round quadratic form (Theorem 8). By considering upper bounds for the number of squares on Pfister’s interpretation, these results finally lead to the main result (Theorem 10) such that the generalization of pythagorean fields coincides with the generalization of Hilbert’s 17th Problem.

Observation of Environmental Stress Cracking in Polymethylmethacrylate by Using the Chemiluminescence Method  [PDF]
Yuji Higuchi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.611107
Abstract: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is highly regarded for its transparency, and is used in such products as cameras and Video Tape Recorders as plastic lenses to take advantage of its excellent optical properties. Also, it is used in numerous other industrial fields like automobile lamp lenses, billboards, and lighting equipment. The phenomenon of environmental stress cracking is known to occur in PMMA due to ethanol, and there are cases when this may become a factor which causes damage of molded products. In the present paper, upon close observation by using the method of chemiluminescence in order to elucidate the mechanism by which this environmental stress cracking occurs, we report that we are able to capture the formation of a radical at the moment of cracking.
The Change in Self-Esteem among Middle School Students in Japan, 1989-2002  [PDF]
Yuji Ogihara
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.711136
Abstract: This paper examined temporal changes in self-esteem among middle school students in Japan from 1989 to 2002. Previous research showed that self-esteem decreased among middle school students between 1999 and 2006. However, it was unclear whether such a decrease was also present in other periods of time. To obtain a better understanding of how people adapt to socio-economic environments, it is important to gain a more comprehensive view of such long-term cultural/social changes. Therefore, to supplement the findings of the existing research on changes in self-esteem, we analyzed large-sample time-series data collected in Japan in 1989 and 2002. We found that middle schoolers’ self-esteem decreased from 1989 to 2002, consistent with previous research. Thus, our study extends the previous research by presenting additional data showing the decrease in self-esteem in Japan.
Rheological Behavior of Nanosilica Suspensions in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Solutions with Sodium Chloride  [PDF]
Yuji Hirose
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.85022
Abstract: Suspensions of silica nanoparticles showed shear-thickening profiles under steady shear conditions up on addition of a small amount of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The suspensions turned into gels upon shaking and their fluidity was recovered several minutes after resting. We studied the rheological properties of these shake gels with small amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl). Gelation occurred at lower shear rates upon addition of small amounts of NaCl. In addition, the time taken by the gelated samples to recover their original viscosity increased with the increasing NaCl content. The weakened repulsive interactions between the silica particles upon NaCl addition lead to particles in closer proximity, and three-dimensional networks of PEO chains are easily formed as the electric double layer of the particles becomes thinner.
Orbital Phase Theory and the Diastereoselectivity of Some Organic Reactions  [PDF]
Yuji Naruse
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2018.67005
Abstract:
The orbital phase refers to the relationship between orbitals that originates from their wave character. We show here that the orbital phase essentially determines the diastereoselectivity of the following three organic reactions. 1) Torquoselectivity of the electrocyclicring-opening reaction of 3-substituted cyclobutenes; 2) Contradictory torquoselectivity of the retro-Nazarov reaction; 3) Diastereoselectivity in electrophilic addition to substituted ethylenes.
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