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Private food safety standards have recently emerged as a dynamic power in the global value chan. Good agricultural practices (GAP) is one such standard currently gaining popularity as a prominent field-level food quality assurance system. Achieving private GAP certification, most notably of GlobalGAP, is a dif ficult option for low income producers in the Global South due to the high costs required for necessary investments and certification. This paper critically analyzes the ethical implications of private food safety standards in light of three theoretical perspectives from environmental sociology: ecological moderniza tion, risk society, and eco-socialism. It then examines the potential of public GAP schemes currently emerging in the Global South for reconciling safety and fairness in global agri-food standardization. It is suggested that the expansion of producer participation in public GAP program be regulated by gradual improvements in the state capacity of resource mobilization for auditing and extension institutions.
Background: We aimed at determining whether the pathogenic bacteria at the
onset of disease are genetically different and whether this affects future
choice of the therapeutic methods against group A β-hemolytic streptococcal acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis. Methods: A pharynx swab was collected
from pediatric patients who visited our hospital. The swab was cultured, and
hemolytic streptococcus was detected 230 times. We isolated pathogenic bacteria
of patients infected more than once and examined the bacteria using pulse-field
gel electrophoresis. Results: Based
on gene search results, we found that if the period of developing relapse was
within 1 month from the first infection, all patients had the same gene.
However, all patients in whom reinfection occurred after 6 months or later had
different pertinent genes. Conclusions: The number of relapse/reinfection is significant for this disease, and
considerably caution is essential for its treatment. No changes to
antibacterial drug administration may be necessary for the second
administration unless more than 6 months have passed since the first infection.