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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8231 matches for " Yuhao Shao "
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Performance Study of Multi-Path in VANETs and Their Impact on Routing Protocols  [PDF]
Jing Wu, Yuhao Wang
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.23018
Abstract: Modeling complicated vehicular traffic behavior and analyzing effects on the communication performance of routing protocols taken by environmental factors have been a challenging task for the past several years. In this paper, we study the performance of multi-path routing protocol. Then, we investigate both multi-path and single-path routing protocol and analyze characteristics such as network connectivity, vehicle-node density etc. To better understand this phenomenon, we use mobility model with different parameters and evaluate the performance of routing protocols (Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing protocols) through NS2 platform. The simulation results show the significance of multi-path on the throughput, loss and average delay of VANETs. The results of this paper may be used to study designing route protocols and applications of VANET.
Identification, Expression and Activity Analyses of Five Novel Duck Beta-Defensins
Deying Ma, Kexin Zhang, Mingyue Zhang, Shengnan Xin, Xiaoli Liu, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Shengwang Liu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047743
Abstract: In the current study, five novel avian β-defensins (AvBDs) were identified and characterized in tissues from Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The nucleotide sequences of these cDNAs comprised 198 bp, 182 bp, 201 bp, 204 bp, and 168 bp, and encoded 65, 60, 66, 67, and 55 amino acids, respectively. Homology, characterization and comparison of these genes with AvBD from other avian species confirmed that they were Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, and 16. Recombinant AvBDs were produced and purified by expressing these genes in Escherichia coli. In addition, peptides were synthesized according to the respective AvBD sequences. Investigation of the antibacterial activity of the Apl_AvBDs showed that all of them exhibited antibacterial activity against all 12 bacteria investigated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, the antibacterial activity of all of the AvBDs against M. tetragenus and P. multocida decreased significantly in the presence of 150 mM NaCl (P<0.01). None of the AvBDs showed hemolytic activity. Consistent with their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, the five novel Apl_AvBDs inhibited replication of duck hepatitis virus (DHV) in vitro significantly (P<0.05). The mRNA expression of all five Apl_AvBD in most tissues, including immune organs and the liver, was upregulated in response to DHV infection at different time points. These findings provide evidence that these defensins activate the immune response to combat microbial infection.
Proteomics analysis of differentially expressed proteins in chicken trachea and kidney after infection with the highly virulent and attenuated coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in vivo
Zhongzan Cao, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Xiaoli Liu, Junfeng Sun, Demin Yu, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Proteome Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-10-24
Abstract: Fifty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified. Results demonstrated that some proteins which had functions in cytoskeleton organization, anti-oxidative stress, and stress response, showed different change patterns in abundance from chicken infected with the highly virulent ck/CH/LDL/97I P5 strain and those given the embryo-passaged, attenuated P115 stain. In addition, the dynamic transcriptional alterations of 12 selected proteins were analyzed by the real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analysis confirmed the change in abundance of heat shock proteins (HSP) beta-1, annexin A2, and annexin A5.The proteomic alterations described here may suggest that these changes to protein expression correlate with IBV virus' virulence in chicken, hence provides valuable insights into the interactions of IBV with its host and may also assist with investigations of the pathogenesis of IBV and other coronavirus infections.Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Coronaviridae in the order Nidovirales. They are able to infect humans as well as other animals, including cows, pigs, mice, and chickens, they generally cause respiratory infection, gastrointestinal, and neurological disorders of varying severity. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was the first coronavirus to be discovered, and is classed among the Gamma coronaviruses on the basis of antigenic and genetic relatedness [1]. It is a major poultry pathogen and is probably endemic in all chicken-raising regions; it has a severe impact on poultry production, causing heavy economic losses. All strains of IBV are capable of infecting a large range of epithelial surfaces of chickens, such as those of the trachea, kidney, oviduct and proventriculus [2].Coronavirus infection has dramatic effects on host cell morphology, transcription and translation patterns, the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, suppression of interferon, and apoptosis pathways. Coronavirus infection
Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus
Zhongzan Cao, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Heyuan Geng, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Proteome Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-9-11
Abstract: 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection.To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of chickens. It is of economic importance in the poultry industry worldwide and is associated with respiratory disease, reduction in weight gain, poor egg production and quality, and decreased feed conversion efficiency. Its etiologic agent is the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), which is a Gamma coronavirus of the coronavirus genus and replicates primarily in the upper respiratory tract, kidney, and oviduct of chickens [1-3].Knowledge of the interactions between virus and host is critical in order to understand the pathogenesis of viral infection. On the one hand, the virus usurps the biological processes of the host to evade the innate immune response of the host; on the other hand, the host mounts a variety of defensive responses against the viral infection. These virus-host interactions can cause changes in the level of expression of host genes. Alteration of gene expression in the host after infection with coronavirus (CoV) has been investigated mainly with regard to infection with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) [4]. Limited studies have been performed to analyze host gene expression
Different linkages in the long and short regions of the genomes of duck enteritis virus Clone-03 and VAC Strains
Xiaoli Liu, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Yang Li, Huixin Li, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-200
Abstract: A 42,897-bp fragment located downstream of the LOFR11 gene was amplified from the Clone-03 strain of DEV by using 'targeted gene walking PCR'. Twenty-two open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted and determined in the following order: 5'-LORF11-RLORF1-ORF1-ICP4-S1-S2-US1-US10-SORF3-US2-MDV091.5-like-US3-US4-US5-US6-US7-US8-ORFx-US1-S2-S1-ICP4 -3'. This was different from that of the published VAC strain, both in the linkage of the L region and S region, and in the length of the US10 and US7 proteins. The MDV091.5-like gene, ORFx gene, S1 gene and S2 gene were first observed in the DEV genome. The lengths of DEV US10 and US7 were determined to be 311 and 371 amino acids, respectively, in the Clone-03 strain of DEV, and these were different from those of other strains. The comparison of genomic organization in the fragment studied herein with those of other herpesviruses showed that DEV possesses some unique characteristics, such as the duplicated US1 at each end of the US region, and the US5, which showed no homology with those of other herpesviruses. In addition, the results of phylogenetic analysis of ORFs in the represented fragment indicated that DEV is closest to its counterparts VZV (Varicellovirus) and other avian herpesviruses.The molecular characteristics of the 42,897-bp fragment of Clone-03 have been found to be different from those of the VAC strain. The phylogenetic analysis of genes in this region showed that DEV should be a separate member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae.Herpesviruses are among the most persistent of all pathogens because they have coevolved with their hosts over a long period of time, and they are relatively harmless in immunocompetent hosts [1]. The family Herpesviridae comprises approximately 100 members; these viruses infect a range of host species from humans and other mammals to birds, amphibians, and reptiles [2]. On the basis of differences in cellular tropism, genome organization, and gene content, herpesviruses have been
Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope in the UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of Duck Enteritis Virus
Xiaoli Liu, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Dan Yu, Huixin Li, Yu Wang, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-223
Abstract: A mAb (designated 1C8) was generated against the DEV UL26c protein, and a series of 17 partially overlapping fragments that spanned the DEV UL26c were expressed with GST tags. These peptides were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting analysis using mAb 1C8 to identify the epitope. A linear motif, 520IYYPGE525, which was located at the C-terminus of the DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins, was identified by mAb 1C8. The result of the ELISA showed that this epitope could be recognized by DEV-positive serum from mice. The 520IYYPGE525 motif was the minimal requirement for reactivity, as demonstrated by analysis of the reactivity of 1C8 with several truncated peptides derived from the motif. Alignment and comparison of the 1C8-defined epitope sequence with those of other alphaherpesviruses indicated that the motif 521YYPGE525 in the epitope sequence was conserved among the alphaherpesviruses.A mAb, 1C8, was generated against DEV UL26c and the epitope-defined minimal sequence obtained using mAb 1C8 was 520IYYPGE525. The mAb and the identified epitope may be useful for further study of the design of diagnostic reagents for DEV.Herpesviruses exist widely in nature. The genomes of herpesviruses consist of linear double-stranded DNA; they differ in size (from approximately 124 to 235 kb), sequence arrangement and base composition [1], and vary significantly with respect to the presence and arrangement of inverted and directly repeated sequences. The genomes of most of the alphaherpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) [2] and Marek's disease virus 1 (MDV-1) [3], encode more than 70 proteins; some of these proteins are not essential for the replication of the viruses. Only limited information is available about the structures and functions of these 70 proteins, although some studies of the antigenic determinants of the glycoproteins have been reported [4,5]. Three types of capsid, named A-, B-, and C-capsids, are needed in the assemb
Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1
Hongwei Zhu, Huixin Li, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Yu Wang, Xiangang Kong
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-156
Abstract: DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein.DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to those of alphaherpesviruses and most similar to the genus Mardivirus. The UL15 and/or UL15.5 accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm during early times post-infection and then are translocated to the nucleus at late times.Duck enteritis virus (DEV), also known as Anatid herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1), is an important pathogen of birds of the order Anseriformes, including ducks, geese and swans, causing the acute contagious disease duck viral enteritis
Comparative analysis of the genes UL1 through UL7 of the duck enteritis virus and other herpesviruses of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae
Li, Huixin;Liu, Shengwang;Han, Zongxi;Shao, Yuhao;Chen, Shuhong;Kong, Xiangang;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572009005000003
Abstract: keywords : duck enteritis virus; ul1-ul7 genes; phylogenetic analysis.
The Role of External Auditors in Detecting and Reporting Corporate Fraud in Public Listed Companies in China
Yuhao Zhou
International Journal of Business Administration , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/ijba.v3n1p2
Abstract: With only 30 years development of Chinese capital market, especially the listed companies and audit profession, there are still some deficiencies compared to the UK which limits the role of external auditors. With the comparisons in the legal and regulatory framework governing external auditors and the responsibilities of external auditors in detecting and reporting corporate fraud between the UK and China, these differences can reflect some difficulties for Chinese auditors in detecting and reporting corporate fraud. Hence, semi-structured interviews are conducted to collect information about the practical difficulties in their audits of listed companies in detecting and reporting fraud in China. In order to strengthen the role of Chinese auditors in detecting and reporting corporate fraud, some recommendations are made finally.
The Case Analysis of the Scandal of Enron
Yuhao Li
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n10p37
Abstract: The Enron scandal, revealed in October 2001, eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world. In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron undoubtedly is the biggest audit failure. It is ever the most famous company in the world, but it also is one of companies which fell down too fast. In this paper, it analysis the reason for this event in detail including the management, conflict of interest and accounting fraud. Meanwhile, it makes analysis the moral responsibility From Individuals’ Angle and Corporation’s Angle.
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