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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5052 matches for " Yuen-Kwun Wong "
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Prognostic implications of surrogate markers of atherosclerosis in low to intermediate risk patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Kui-Kai Lau, Yuen-Kwun Wong, Yap-Hang Chan, Kai-Hang Yiu, Kay-Cheong Teo, Leonard Li, Shu-Leong Ho, Koon-Ho Chan, Chung-Wah Siu, Hung-Fat Tse
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-101
Abstract: We sought to determine the prognostic values of different non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis, including brachial artery endothelial function, carotid artery atheroma burden, ankle-brachial index, arterial stiffness and computed tomography coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in 151 T2DM Chinese patients that were identified low-intermediate risk from the FRS recalibrated for Chinese (<20% risk in 10?years). Patients were prospectively followed-up and presence of atherosclerotic events documented for a mean duration of 61?±?16?months.A total of 17 atherosclerotic events in 16 patients (11%) occurred during the follow-up period. The mean FRS of the study population was 5.0?±?4.6% and area under curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for prediction of atherosclerotic events was 0.59?±?0.07 (P?=?0.21). Among different vascular assessments, CACS?>?40 had the best prognostic value (AUC 0.81?±?0.06, P?<?0.01) and offered significantly better accuracy in prediction compared with FRS (P?=?0.038 for AUC comparisons). Combination of FRS with CACS or other surrogate vascular markers did not further improve the prognostic values over CACS alone. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified CACS?>?40 as an independent predictor of atherosclerotic events in T2DM patients (Hazards Ratio 27.11, 95% Confidence Interval 3.36-218.81, P?=?0.002).In T2DM patients identified as low-intermediate risk by the FRS, a raised CACS?>?40 was an independent predictor for atherosclerotic events.Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing adverse atherosclerotic events including acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and ischemic stroke [1-3]. Various risk assessment algorithms, for example the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), aim to predict the likelihood of developing cardiovascular events [4-6]. Some of these scores have also been recalibrated based on the ethnic differences in cardiovascul
Stroke Patients with a Past History of Cancer Are at Increased Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Cardiovascular Mortality
Kui-Kai Lau, Yuen-Kwun Wong, Kay-Cheong Teo, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Sonny Fong-Kwong Hon, Koon-Ho Chan, Raymond Tak-Fai Cheung, Leonard Sheung-Wai Li, Hung-Fat Tse, Shu-Leong Ho, Chung-Wah Siu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088283
Abstract: Background and Purpose Cancer patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. It is unclear whether cancer confers any additional risk for recurrent stroke or cardiovascular mortality after stroke. Methods This was a single center, observational study of 1,105 consecutive Chinese ischemic stroke patients recruited from a large stroke rehabilitation unit based in Hong Kong. We sought to determine whether patients with cancer are at higher risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Results Amongst 1,105 patients, 58 patients (5.2%) had cancer, of whom 74% were in remission. After a mean follow-up of 76±18 months, 241 patients developed a recurrent stroke: 22 in patients with cancer (38%, annual incidence 13.94%/year), substantially more than those without cancer (21%, 4.65%/year) (p<0.01). In a Cox regression model, cancer, age and atrial fibrillation were the 3 independent predictors of recurrent stroke with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54–3.80), 1.01 (1.00–1.03) and 1.35 (1.01–1.82) respectively. Likewise, patients with cancer had a higher cardiovascular mortality compared with those without cancer (4.30%/year vs. 2.35%/year, p = 0.08). In Cox regression analysis, cancer (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.08–4.02), age (HR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06), heart failure (HR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.72–5.47) and significant carotid atherosclerosis (HR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.02–2.36) were independent predictors for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Stroke patients with a past history of cancer are at increased risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular mortality.
Blow-up Phenomena for Compressible Euler Equations with Non-vacuum Initial Data
Sen Wong,Manwai Yuen
Mathematics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s00033-015-0535-9
Abstract: In this article, we study the blowup phenomena of compressible Euler equations with non-vacuum initial data. Our new results, which cover a general class of testing functions, present new initial value blowup conditions. The corresponding blowup results of the 1-dimensional case in non-radial symmetry are also included.
Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Chinese Medicines on Common Oral Bacteria  [PDF]
Michelle K. Z. Yuen, Ricky W. K. Wong, Urban H?gg, Lakshman Samaranayake
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2011.22007
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate twenty Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) against four oral bacteria. Methods: Twenty TCM were tested for sensitivity against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Aliquots of suspension of each bacterial species were inoculated on a horse blood agar (HBA) plate, 6 mm diameter paper disks was soaked in different drug suspensions were placed concentrically on a HBA plate. Disks soaked in 0.2% w/v chlorhexidine were used as positive controls. These HBA plates were incubated for 48 hours anaerobically and the diameters of growth inhibition of three different areas were measured using a calibrated computer software and the mean diameter obtained for each bacteria. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The experiment was repeated on three separate occasions. Results: The TCMs that consistently against Porphyromonas gingivalis, included Folium artemisiae argyi, Fructus crataegi, Rhizoma dryopteris crassirhizomae, Flos magnoliae, Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati, Radix scrophulariae ningpoensis, Galla chinensis, Radix scutellariae baicalensis and Rhizoma coptidis; against Streptococcus mutans included Fructus crataegi, Galla chinensis and Rhizoma copitidis; against Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis included Galla chinensis and Rhizoma copitidis. Conclusion: Rhizoma copitidis and Galla chinensis had inhibitory effects on Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro.
Blowup of Regular Solutions for the Relativistic Euler-Poisson Equations
Wai Hong Chan,Sen Wong,Manwai Yuen
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we study the blowup phenomena for the regular solutions of the isentropic relativistic Euler-Poisson equations with a vacuum state in spherical symmetry. Using a general family of testing functions, we obtain new blowup conditions for the relativistic Euler-Poisson equations. We also show that the proposed blowup conditions are valid regardless of the speed requirement, which was one of the key constraints stated in "Y. Geng, Singularity Formation for Relativistic Euler and Euler-Poisson Equations with Repulsive Force, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 14 (2015), 549--564.".
Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding

Yuen Ching-Hung,Wong Kwok-Wo,

中国物理 B , 2012,
Abstract: A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key.
Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation
Kwok TCY,Chau WW,Yuen KSL,Wong AYM
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2011,
Abstract: Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly
Structure of UreG/UreF/UreH Complex Reveals How Urease Accessory Proteins Facilitate Maturation of Helicobacter pylori Urease
Yu Hang Fong,Ho Chun Wong,Man Hon Yuen,Pak Ho Lau,Yu Wai Chen,Kam-Bo Wong
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001678
Abstract: Urease is a metalloenzyme essential for the survival of Helicobacter pylori in acidic gastric environment. Maturation of urease involves carbamylation of Lys219 and insertion of two nickel ions at its active site. This process requires GTP hydrolysis and the formation of a preactivation complex consisting of apo-urease and urease accessory proteins UreF, UreH, and UreG. UreF and UreH form a complex to recruit UreG, which is a SIMIBI class GTPase, to the preactivation complex. We report here the crystal structure of the UreG/UreF/UreH complex, which illustrates how UreF and UreH facilitate dimerization of UreG, and assembles its metal binding site by juxtaposing two invariant Cys66-Pro67-His68 metal binding motif at the interface to form the (UreG/UreF/UreH)2 complex. Interaction studies revealed that addition of nickel and GTP to the UreG/UreF/UreH complex releases a UreG dimer that binds a nickel ion at the dimeric interface. Substitution of Cys66 and His68 with alanine abolishes the formation of the nickel-charged UreG dimer. This nickel-charged UreG dimer can activate urease in vitro in the presence of the UreF/UreH complex. Static light scattering and atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the nickel-charged UreG dimer, upon GTP hydrolysis, reverts to its monomeric form and releases nickel to urease. Based on our results, we propose a mechanism on how urease accessory proteins facilitate maturation of urease.
Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis and Brackish Water Acclimation in the Euryhaline Freshwater White-Rimmed Stingray, Himantura signifer
Samuel Z. H. Wong, Biyun Ching, You R. Chng, Wai P. Wong, Shit F. Chew, Yuen K. Ip
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066691
Abstract: L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (Gulo) catalyzes the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis, which occurs in the kidney of elasmobranchs. This study aimed to clone and sequence gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) from the kidney of the euryhaline freshwater stingray, Himantura signifer, and to determine the effects of acclimation from freshwater to brackish water (salinity 20) on its renal gulo mRNA expression and Gulo activity. We also examined the effects of brackish water acclimation on concentrations of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the kidney, brain and gill. The complete cDNA coding sequence of gulo from the kidney of H. signifer contained 1323 bp coding for 440 amino acids. The expression of gulo was kidney-specific, and renal gulo expression decreased significantly by 67% and 50% in fish acclimated to brackish water for 1 day and 6 days, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in renal Gulo activity after 6 days of acclimation to brackish water. Hence, brackish water acclimation led to a decrease in the ascorbic acid synthetic capacity in the kidney of H. signifer. However, there were significant increases in concentrations of ascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the gills (after 1 or 6 days), and a significant increase in the concentration of ascorbate and a significant decrease in the concentration of dehydroascorbate in the brain (after 1 day) of fish acclimated to brackish water. Taken together, our results indicate that H. signifer might experience greater salinity-induced oxidative stress in freshwater than in brackish water, possibly related to its short history of freshwater invasion. These results also suggest for the first time a possible relationship between the successful invasion of the freshwater environment by some euryhaline marine elasmobranchs and the ability of these elasmobranchs to increase the capacity of ascorbic acid synthesis in response to hyposalinity stress.
Holistic Processing of Words Modulated by Reading Experience
Alan C.-N. Wong,Cindy M. Bukach,Crystal Yuen,Lizhuang Yang,Shirley Leung,Emma Greenspon
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020753
Abstract: Perceptual expertise has been studied intensively with faces and object categories involving detailed individuation. A common finding is that experience in fulfilling the task demand of fine, subordinate-level discrimination between highly similar instances is associated with the development of holistic processing. This study examines whether holistic processing is also engaged by expert word recognition, which is thought to involve coarser, basic-level processing that is more part-based. We adopted a paradigm widely used for faces – the composite task, and found clear evidence of holistic processing for English words. A second experiment further showed that holistic processing for words was sensitive to the amount of experience with the language concerned (native vs. second-language readers) and with the specific stimuli (words vs. pseudowords). The adoption of a paradigm from the face perception literature to the study of expert word perception is important for further comparison between perceptual expertise with words and face-like expertise.
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