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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25853 matches for " Young-Woon Kim "
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Interfacial microscopic mechanism of free energy minimization in Omega precipitate formation
Sung Jin Kang,Young-Woon Kim,Miyoung Kim,Jian-Min Zuo
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Precipitate strengthening of light metals underpins a large segment of industry.Yet, quantitative understanding of physics involved in precipitate formation is often lacking, especially, about interfacial contribution to the energetics of precipitate formation.Here, we report an intricate strain accommodation and free energy minimization mechanism in the formation of Omega precipitates (Al2Cu)in the Al_Cu_Mg_Ag alloy. We show that the affinity between Ag and Mg at the interface provides the driving force for lowering the heat of formation, while substitution between Mg, Al and Cu of different atomic radii at interfacial atomic sites alters interfacial thickness and adjust precipitate misfit strain. The results here highlight the importance of interfacial structure in precipitate formation, and the potential of combining the power of atomic resolution imaging with first-principles theory for unraveling the mystery of physics at nanoscale interfaces.
Deformation behavior of duplex austenite and ε-martensite high-Mn steel
Ki Hyuk Kwon, Byeong-Chan Suh, Sung-Il Baik, Young-Woon Kim, Jong-Kyo Choi and Nack J Kim
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2013,
Abstract: Deformation and work hardening behavior of Fe–17Mn–0.02C steel containing ε-martensite within the austenite matrix have been investigated by means of in situ microstructural observations and x-ray diffraction analysis. During deformation, the steel shows the deformation-induced transformation of austenite → ε-martensite → α'-martensite as well as the direct transformation of austenite → α'-martensite. Based on the calculation of changes in the fraction of each constituent phase, we found that the phase transformation of austenite → ε-martensite is more effective in work hardening than that of ε-martensite → α'-martensite. Moreover, reverse transformation of ε-martensite → austenite has also been observed during deformation. It originates from the formation of stacking faults within the deformed ε-martensite, resulting in the formation of 6H-long periodic ordered structure.
Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations
Jae-Woo Lee,Young-Woon Kang,Jina Lee,Young-Wook Lee
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1038/nature08565
Abstract: The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae -- a process known as metal enrichment. Although M22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as `pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy.
Towards a better understanding of the distance scale from RR Lyrae variable stars: A case study for the inner halo globular cluster NGC 6723
Jae-Woo Lee,Mercedes Lopez-Morales,Kyeong-Soo Hong,Young-Woon Kang,Brian L. Pohl,Alistair Walker
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/210/1/6
Abstract: We present BV photometry for 54 variables in the metal-rich inner halo globular cluster NGC6723. With the discovery of new RR Lyrae variables (RRLs), we obtain = 0.541 +/- 0.066 and = 0.292 +/- 0.030 day, n(c)/n(ab+c) = 0.167, and _int = 15.459 +/- 0.055. We carry out the Fourier decomposition analysis and obtain [Fe/H]_ZW = -1.23 +/- 0.11 and E(B-V) = 0.063 +/- 0.015 for NGC 6723. By calibrating the zero-point from the recent absolute trigonometric parallax measurements for RR Lyr, we derive the revised M_V(RR)-[Fe/H] relation, providing M_V(RR)= 0.52 at [Fe/H] = -1.50 and (m-M)_0 = 18.54 for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), in excellent agreement with others. We obtain (m-M)_0 = 14.65 +/- 0.05, equivalent to the distance from the Sun of 8.47 +/- 0.17 kpc, for NGC 6723 from various distance measurement methods using RRLs. We find that RRLs in NGC 6723 do not have magnitude dependency on the radial distance, due to a not severe degree of the apparent crowdedness. Finally, we show that there exists a relation between the degree of photometric contamination and the apparent crowdedness of the central region of globular cluster systems. The use of this relation can play a significantly role on mitigating the discrepancy to establish a cosmic distance scale using RRLs in resolved stellar populations in the near-field cosmology.
Comparative Study of Imaging Characteristics of I-125 Imaging Using the Siemens Inveon Scanner and Siemens Symbia TruePoint  [PDF]
Young Jun Kim, Ilhan Lim, A Ram Yu, Byung Il Kim, Chang Woon Choi, Sang Moo Lim, Jin Su Kim
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2015.810064
Abstract: Objective: Although Iodine-125 (125I) has been widely used for in vitro studies because of its relatively long half-life (60.1 days), 125I imaging is limited because of its low energy (27 - 35 keV), even in an animal-dedicated system. In this study, imaging characteristics of 125I were assessed using a small animal-dedicated imaging system and clinical scanner. Methods: Using the Siemens Inveon and Siemens Symbia TruePoint systems, imaging characteristics such as resolution, sensitivity, and image quality were compared. Mouse high resolution (MHR-0.5), mouse general purpose (MGP-1.0), and mouse high sensitivity (MHS-2.0) collimators were used for the Inveon scanner, and low energy high-resolution (LEHR) and low energy all-purpose (LEAP) collimators were used for the Symbia TruePoint. For animal imaging, 16.8 MBq of 125I was administered to BALB/c mice intravenously, and the planar image and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were obtained using both scanners. Results: The resolution of 125I for the Inveon scanner was 3.98 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at a 30-mm distance with the MHR-0.5 collimator, and the value of Symbia scanner was 8.72 mm FWHM at a 30-mm distance with the LEHR collimator. The sensitivity of 125I for the Inveon scanner was 21.87 cps/MBq, and the value for the clinical scanner was 30.55 cps/MBq. The planar images of mice were successfully obtained at the level of evaluating specific binding in both scanners. Conclusion: 125I small animal imaging can be achieved with a clinical scanner. This result may enhance the utilization of 125I small animal imaging using a clinical scanner.
A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests
Hyo Seon Park,Ji Young Kim,Jin Gi Kim,Se Woon Choi,Yousok Kim
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130912329
Abstract: Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS) could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape) of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD). By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape) with the 3D measurements.
Raman Scattered He II $λ$ 6545 Line in the Symbiotic Star V1016 Cygni
Hee-Won Lee,Young-Jong Sohn,Young Woon Kang,Ho-Il Kim
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/378886
Abstract: We present a spectrum of the symbiotic star V1016 Cyg observed with the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, in order to illustrate a method to measure the covering factor of the neutral scattering region around the giant component with respect to the hot emission region around the white dwarf component. In the spectrum, we find broad wings around H$\alpha$ and a broad emission feature around 6545${\rm \AA}$ that is blended with the [N II]$ \lambda$ 6548 line. These two features are proposed to be formed by Raman scattering by atomic hydrogen, where the incident radiation is proposed to be UV continuum radiation around Ly$\beta$ in the former case and He II $\lambda$ 1025 emission line arising from $n=6\to n=2$ transitions for the latter feature. We remove the H$\alpha$ wings by a template Raman scattering wing profile and subtract the [N II] $\lambda$ 6548 line using the 3 times stronger [N II] $\lambda$ 6583 feature in order to isolate the He II Raman scattered 6545 \AA line. We obtain the flux ratio $F_{6545}/F_{6560}=0.24$ of the He II $\lambda$ 6560 emission line and the 6545 \AA feature for V1016 Cyg. Under the assumption that the He II emission from this object is isotropic, this ratio is converted to the ratio $\Phi_{6545}/\Phi_{1025}=0.17$ of the number of the incident photons and that of the scattered photons. This implies that the scattering region with H I column density $N_{HI}\ge 10^{20}{\rm cm^{-2}}$ covers 17 per cent of the emission region. By combining the presumed binary period $\sim 100$ yrs of this system we infer that a significant fraction of the slow stellar wind from the Mira component is ionized and that the scattering region around the Mira extends a few tens of AU, which is closely associated with the mass loss process of the Mira component.
Electrical transport in small bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes: intertube interaction and effects of tube deformation
Taekyung Kim,Gunn Kim,Woon Ih Choi,Young-Kyun Kwon,Jian-Min Zuo
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3402768
Abstract: We report a combined electronic transport and structural characterization study of small carbon nanotube bundles in field-effect transistors (FET). The atomic structures of the bundles are determined by electron diffraction using an observation window built in the FET. The single-walled nanotube bundles exhibit electrical transport characteristics sensitively dependent on the structure of individual tubes, their arrangements in the bundle, deformation due to intertube interaction, and the orientation with respect to the gate electric field. Our ab-initio simulation shows that tube deformation in the bundle induces a bandgap opening in a metallic tube. These results show the importance of intertube interaction in electrical transport of bundled nanotubes.
A Practical Monitoring System for the Structural Safety of Mega-Trusses Using Wireless Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges
Hyo Seon Park,Hwan Young Lee,Se Woon Choi,Yousok Kim
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s131217346
Abstract: Sensor technologies have been actively employed in structural health monitoring (SHM) to evaluate structural safety. To provide stable and real-time monitoring, a practical wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs) is proposed and applied to a building under construction. In this WSNS, the data measured from each VWSG are transmitted to the sensor node via a signal line and then transmitted to the master node through a short-range wireless communication module (operating on the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band). The master node also employs a long-range wireless communication module (Code Division Multiple Access—CDMA) to transmit the received data from the sensor node to a server located in a remote area, which enables a manager to examine the measured data in real time without any time or location restrictions. In this study, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to measure long-term strain variations of mega-trusses in an irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a 16-month period, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and to conduct a comparison with numerical simulation results. The effect of temperature stress on the structural elements was also analyzed. From these observations, the feasibility of a long-term WSNS based on VWSGs to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was confirmed.
Numerical analysis of high-index nanocomposite encapsulant for light-emitting diodes
Young-Gu Ju,Guilhem Almuneau,Tae-Hoon Kim,Baek-Woon Lee
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.45.2546
Abstract: We used two-dimensional Finte-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) software to study the transition behavior of nano-particles from scatterers to an optically uniform medium. We measured the transmission efficiency of the dipole source, which is located in the high refractive index medium(index=2.00) and encapsulated by low index resin(index=1.41). In an effort to compose index-matched resin and to reduce internal reflection, high-index nano-particles are added to low-index resin in simulations of various sizes and densities. As the size of the nano-particles and the average spacing between particles are reduced to 0.02 lambda and 0.07 lambda respectively, the transmission efficiency improves two-fold compared to that without nanoparticles. The numerical results can be used to understand the optical behavior of nano-particles and to improve the extraction efficiency of high brightness light-emitting-diodes(LEDs), through the use of nano-composite encapsulant.
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