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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13688 matches for " Young-Ho Khang "
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Consistency between education reported in health survey and recorded in death certificate
Young-Ho Khang, Hye Ryun Kim, John W Lynch
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-294
Abstract: The 1998/2001 NHANES data contained unique 13-digit personal identification numbers that were individually linked to death certificate data from the Korean National Statistical Office. Duration of mortality follow-up was 7.1 years. The data from 513 deaths were used to determine sensitivity and specificity of education in death certificate and estimate agreement rates of education level between NHANES data and death certificate data. Odds ratios for agreement in education were also estimated. Covariates considered in the analyses were gender, age, duration between NHANES and death, and cause of death.The proportion of deaths without recorded education in death certificate was very low (0.2%). A total of 29.4% discordant pairs were found. Sensitivity and specificity for college or higher education were 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.71–0.97) and 0.99 (0.98–1.00). However, sensitivity was poor for middle school education. The overall agreement rate was 70.7% (66.8%–74.6%) when education was categorized into five groups and increased up to 88.9% (86.2%–91.6%) when three education categories were used. The magnitude of validity and reliability for education did not generally vary with age, duration between health survey and death, and cause of death. However, a significantly smaller likelihood of agreement was found for middle and elementary school education after adjusting for covariates.Low percentage of missing information on education in South Korean death certificate data could provide a great potential to monitor mortality inequalities. A more collapsed categorization in education would be recommended when a more definitive conclusion on educational mortality inequality is required.Education level is one indicator of socioeconomic position which, in several countries including South Korea, is provided though death certificate data. Its validity determines the usefulness of death certificate data for exploring the association between socioeconomic position and mor
Mortality from and Incidence of Pesticide Poisoning in South Korea: Findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010
Eun Shil Cha, Young-Ho Khang, Won Jin Lee
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095299
Abstract: Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.
Monitoring trends in socioeconomic health inequalities: it matters how you measure
Young-Ho Khang, Sung-Cheol Yun, John W Lynch
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-66
Abstract: A total of 147,805 subjects (71,793 men and 76,017 women) aged 25–64 from three Social Statistics Surveys of Korea from 1999 to 2006 were analyzed. Socioeconomic position indicators were occupational class and education.While there were no significant p values for trend in ORs of occupational class among men, trends for PRs were significant. In women, p values for OR trends were similar to those for PR trends. In males, RII by log-binomial regression showed a significant increasing tendency while RII by logistic regression was stable between years. In females, trends of RIIs by logistic regression and log-binomial regression produced a similar level of p values.Different methods of measuring trends in socioeconomic health inequalities may lead to different conclusions about whether relative inequalities are increasing or decreasing. Trends in ORs may overstate or understate trends in relative inequality in health when the outcome is of relatively high prevalence and that prevalence varies significantly with time.Monitoring the extent of socioeconomic health inequality over time is an essential element in policies aimed at reducing health inequalities. Various measures have been suggested and used for measuring relative magnitude of health inequality over time [1-3]. Odds ratio (OR), a relative measure for health inequality, has frequently been used in prior studies for presenting inequality trends in health and health behaviors [4-13] including ours [14,15]. Although OR is a good measure of association and can be a relative measure of health inequality, an important problem may arise when OR trends are used in data in which the outcome variable (e.g., smoking or ill-health) is of relatively high prevalence (e.g., > 10%) and varies significantly over time. As previously shown in several studies [16-21], odds exponentially increase as probability (outcome prevalence in cross-sectional data) increases and OR become greater compared to PR as outcome prevalence increases
An improvement of some inequalities similar to Hilbert's inequality
Young-Ho Kim
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171201006937
Abstract: We give an improvement of some inequalities similar to Hilbert's inequality involving series of nonnegative terms. The integral analogies of the main results are also given.
A Maximal inequality of non-negative submartingale
Kim Young-Ho
Journal of Inequalities and Applications , 1999,
Abstract: In this paper, we prove the maximal inequality , , between a non-negative submartingale , is strongly subordinate to and , where is real valued function such that for each , . This inequality improves Burkholder's inequality in which .
Characterizing and Modeling Citation Dynamics
Young-Ho Eom, Santo Fortunato
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024926
Abstract: Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well.
Settleability assessment protocol for anaerobic granular sludge and its application
Young-Ho Ahn, Richard E Speece
Water SA , 2003,
Abstract: A simple method for settleability assessment of anaerobic granular sludge was proposed and its applicability as an opera parameter was evaluated in a lab-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater. Based on the settleability protocol, the O was increased up to 28 kg COD.m-3.d-1 (67 kg COD.m-3 of granular bed volume.d-1) which corresponds to an HRT of 1 h. The re revealed that the protocol was sufficiently sensitive to define the settleability of the sludge samples and to accurately determ their allowable upflow velocities, resultant organic loading rates, and recycling ratios according to the settleability of the gran bed. Also, a series of graphical procedures with settling tests which are very easy to apply for settleability monitoring improvised, capable of direct use as an operational and monitoring parameter of the granular bed with laboratory and full-scale reactors, without need for additional sludge bed control such as dosing of chemicals. In addition, this method was also found to be applicable to improve and monitor system performance according to high or low-strength wastewater characteristics. Image analysis of the granular biomass supported the suitability of this graphical method. WaterSA Vol.29(4) 2003: 419-426
Some integral inequalities for functions of two variables
Sever S. Dragomir,Young-Ho Kim
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2003,
Abstract: In this article, we establish some integral inequalities for function with two independent variables. Also we show applications of these inequalities for finding bounds of solutions to partial differential equations.
CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells In Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Young-Ho Lee,Muhaimin Rifa'i
Journal of Tropical Life Science , 2011,
Abstract: CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) require activation through the T cell receptor for function. CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells are believed to be key players of the immune tolerance network and control the induction and effector phase of the immune system. Although these cells require antigen-specific activation, they are generally able to suppress bystander T cell responses once activated. This raises the possibility that antigen-specific Treg may be useful therapeutically by localizing generalized suppressive activity to tissues expressing select target antigens. Treg can exert a potent suppressive effect on immune effector cells reactive to host antigens and prevent graft versus host disease (GVHD) in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we observed that co-transfer of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells derived from donor type along with the donor bone marrow cells could control GVHD-like reactions by suppressing effectors cells of host responding to the donor hematopoietic compartment, and resulted in prevention of autoimmunity and rejection. We further demonstrate that CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells can control immune-based morbidity after allogeneic BMT by suppressing the development of granulocytes cells and increasing the level of B cell expression.
Highlighting Entanglement of Cultures via Ranking of Multilingual Wikipedia Articles
Young-Ho Eom, Dima L. Shepelyansky
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074554
Abstract: How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013
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