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The rapid detection of infectivity of several agents that cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has previously been achieved by assaying for deposits of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in follicular dendritic cells in the spleens of transgenic mice carrying the human prion protein gene. In this study, transgenic mice expressing the bovine prion protein were inoculated intraperitoneally with classical (C-type) or atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE). Proteinase-resistant PrPSc were detected in the spleens of all transgenic mice at 75 days after inoculation with both types of BSE. Infectivity in PrPSc-positive spleens of the transgenic mice revealed that prions of C- and L-type BSE replicated. These results suggest that bioassay system by the transgenic mice could be useful for the rapid detection of BSE infectivity with discriminating between C- and L-type BSEs.
We consider a
situation where agents have to choose one project among the set of multiple
alternatives and at the same time they have to agree with the way of sharing
the cost of the project that is actually developed. We propose a multi-bidding
cost sharing mechanism where each agent simultaneously announces his voluntary
contribution for each project when the project is actually carried out, in
combination with his vote for the projects. We show that a Nash equilibrium
exists in this mechanism, and in any Nash equilibrium of this mechanism, the
efficient project is always chosen. Moreover, in the Nash equilibrium, the way
of sharing the cost of the project is, in a sense, an equal sharing rule.