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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2163 matches for " Yoshio Ishikawa "
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Stochastic Process Optimization Technique  [PDF]
Hiroaki Yoshida, Katsuhito Yamaguchi, Yoshio Ishikawa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.519293
Abstract: The conventional optimization methods were generally based on a deterministic approach, since their purpose is to find out an accurate solution. However, when the solution space is extremely narrowed as a result of setting many inequality constraints, an ingenious scheme based on experience may be needed. Similarly, parameters must be adjusted with solution search algorithms when nonlinearity of the problem is strong, because the risk of falling into local solution is high. Thus, we here propose a new method in which the optimization problem is replaced with stochastic process based on path integral techniques used in quantum mechanics and an approximate value of optimal solution is calculated as an expected value instead of accurate value. It was checked through some optimization problems that this method using stochastic process is effective. We call this new optimization method “stochastic process optimization technique (SPOT)”. It is expected that this method will enable efficient optimization by avoiding the above difficulties. In this report, a new optimization method based on a stochastic process is formulated, and several calculation examples are shown to prove its effectiveness as a method to obtain approximate solution for optimization problems.
An Observational Study on the Clinical and Nutritional Factors Determining the Kidney Function at One Year after Transplantation  [PDF]
Nao Kawabata, Toshiko Sato, Koji Nanmoku, Daisuke Nagata, Shizukiyo Ishikawa, Shun Ishibashi, Takashi Yagisawa, Yoshio Uehara
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.911093
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and nutritional factors influencing the renal function of the transplanted kidney during a one-year follow-up period after transplantation. Patients: The present prospective observational study included 52 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at Jichi Medical University Hospital from 2014 to 2016. Results: The serum creatinine (sCr) concentration at one month after transplantation was closely related to the concentration at 12 months. The recipients were divided into two groups based on the sCr concentration at one month after transplantation. Recipients with a sCr concentration greater than or equal to the median were classified into Group H, while those with concentrations that were less than the median were classified into Group L. A stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the salt intake in male recipients was an independent predictor of the renal function at 12 months (β = 0.663, p < 0.01), while the BMI was an independent factor in female recipients (β = 0.618, p < 0.01). Moreover, in female recipients, the BMI and serum uric acid values in Group H were significantly higher than those in Group L. The BMI values of the female recipients in Group H were significantly higher than those in Group L at all times during the follow-up period (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The daily salt intake was independently associated with the renal function at one year after kidney transplantation in male recipients. In female recipients, the BMI was independently associated with the sCr concentration during the one-year follow-up period.
A Rapid Bioassay for Classical and L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies  [PDF]
Yuichi Matsuura, Yukiko Ishikawa, Robert A. Somerville, Takashi Yokoyama, Ken’ichi Hagiwara, Yoshio Yamakawa, Tetsutaro Sata, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Shirou Mohri
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.31013

The rapid detection of infectivity of several agents that cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has previously been achieved by assaying for deposits of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in follicular dendritic cells in the spleens of transgenic mice carrying the human prion protein gene. In this study, transgenic mice expressing the bovine prion protein were inoculated intraperitoneally with classical (C-type) or atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE). Proteinase-resistant PrPSc were detected in the spleens of all transgenic mice at 75 days after inoculation with both types of BSE. Infectivity in PrPSc-positive spleens of the transgenic mice revealed that prions of C- and L-type BSE replicated. These results suggest that bioassay system by the transgenic mice could be useful for the rapid detection of BSE infectivity with discriminating between C- and L-type BSEs.

Podocyte loss and albuminuria of KK-Ay mouse: A spontaneous animal model for human type 2 diabetic nephropathy  [PDF]
Yuji Ishikawa, Takamichi Ito, Mitsuo Tanimoto, Shinji Hagiwara, Masako Furukawa, Saori Yamaguchi, Keisuke Omote, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Tomohito Gohda, Yoshio Shimizu, Kazuhiko Funabiki, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.23054
Abstract: Podocyte loss was well known in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients. The objective of the present study was to determine the number of podocytes and the degree of albuminuria in diabetic KK-Ay/Ta (KK-Ay) mice which had been reported as diabetic nephropathy model. Diabetic KK-Ay mice, diabetic KK/Ta mice and non-diabetic BALB/cA Jcl (BALB/cA) mice were studied. We analyzed glomerular lesions in all mice by morphometric analysis and immunofluorescence to determine the number of podocytes. Level of urinary albumin was also measured. Glomerular enlargement and mesangial expansion were observed in KK-Ay mice. Mean number of podocytes per glomerulus (NG pod) in diabetic KK-Ay mice was significantly lower than that in non-diabetic BALB/cA mice. Mean NG pod/glomerular area (GA) per glomerulus was also significantly decreased in diabetic KK-Ay mice. The level of urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in diabetic KK-Ay mice was significantly higher than that in non-diabetic BALB/cA mice. These data suggest that podocyte loss might induce albuminuria in KK-Ay mice. This finding confirmed our previous report that KK-Ay mice, especially in terms of histological findings, are a suitable animal model for glomerular injury in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
Photoluminescence from silicon dioxide photonic crystal cavities with embedded silicon nanocrystals
Yiyang Gong,Satoshi Ishikawa,Szu-Lin Cheng,Yoshio Nishi,Jelena Vuckovic
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.235317
Abstract: One dimensional nanobeam photonic crystal cavities are fabricated in silicon dioxide with silicon nanocrystals. Quality factors of over 9 x 10^3 are found in experiment, matching theoretical predictions, with mode volumes of 1.5(lambda/n)^3 . Photoluminescence from the cavity modes is observed in the visible wavelength range 600-820 nm. Studies of the lossy characteristics of the cavities are conducted at varying temperatures and pump powers. Free carrier absorption effects are found to be significant at pump powers as low as a few hundred nanowatts.
Choosing Wisely and Sharing Cost: A Multi-Bidding Cost Sharing Mechanism  [PDF]
Yoshio Kamijo
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.46058

We consider a situation where agents have to choose one project among the set of multiple alternatives and at the same time they have to agree with the way of sharing the cost of the project that is actually developed. We propose a multi-bidding cost sharing mechanism where each agent simultaneously announces his voluntary contribution for each project when the project is actually carried out, in combination with his vote for the projects. We show that a Nash equilibrium exists in this mechanism, and in any Nash equilibrium of this mechanism, the efficient project is always chosen. Moreover, in the Nash equilibrium, the way of sharing the cost of the project is, in a sense, an equal sharing rule.

A New Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2011.12005
Abstract: The Copenhagen interpretation is the most authorized interpretation of quantum mechanics, but there are a number of ideas that are associated with the Copenhagen interpretation. It is ceratin that this fact is not necessarily desirable. Thus, we propose a new interpretation of measurement theory, which is the linguistic aspect (or, the mathematical generalization) of quantum mechanics. Although this interpretation is superficially similar to a part of so-called Copenhagen interpretation, we show that it has a merit to be applicable to both quantum and classical systems. For example, we say that Bell’s inequality is broken even in classical systems.
Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Language:Reconsideration of Traditional Philosophies  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2012.21002
Abstract: Recently we proposed “a new interpretation of quantum mechanics (called quantum and classical measurement theory)” in this journal (JQIS: Vol. 1, No. 2), which was characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only realize the remarkable extension of quantum mechanics but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., the philosophy of quantum mechanics). And thus, the turn urges us to dream that traditional philosophies (i.e., Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, John Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Saussure, Wittgenstein, etc.) can be understood in the quantum mechanical world view. This dream will be challenged in this paper. We, of course, know that most scientists are skeptical to philosophy. Still, we can expect that readers find a good linguistic philosophy (i.e. philosophy of language) in quantum mechanics.
A Role of Chaotic Phenomenon and the Central Place System in a Firm’s Location Selections  [PDF]
Toshiharu Ishikawa
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21019
Abstract: When a manufacturing firm has a plan to build a factory, the determination of the factory’s location site is one of the most important elements in the plan. Since the manufacturer does not have enough information of economic conditions of all potential location sites, the manufacturer cannot determine immediately its location site. A series of steps are taken to determine the location place. The firm makes range of searching area small step by step toward the site deter-mination; 1) Determination of a prospective region in a large space, 2) Selection of a potential area in that region, 3) Choice of an urban district in that area, 4) Decision of a site in the district. This paper proposes that chaotic phenome-non, which is appeared in the calculation processes to specify the optimal location site, may be used to identify a pro-spective region. And then, it is shown in the paper that the central place systems laid in the region play a role in the se-lection of a potential area for the factory location. This paper elucidates how a firm searches step by step an appropriate factory’s location within a large geographical area.
Ergodic Hypothesis and Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics in the Quantum Mechanical World View  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2012.22014
Abstract: In this paper, we study and answer the following fundamental problems concerning classical equilibrium statistical mechanics: 1): Is the principle of equal a priori probabilities indispensable for equilibrium statistical mechanics? 2): Is the ergodic hypothesis related to equilibrium statistical mechanics? Note that these problems are not yet answered, since there are several opinions for the formulation of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In order to answer the above questions, we first introduce measurement theory (i.e., the theory of quantum mechanical world view), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. And we propose the measurement theoretical foundation of equili-brium statistical mechanics, and further, answer the above 1) and 2), that is, 1) is “No”, but, 2) is “Yes”.
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