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In recent years, several marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates have been reported to feed on diatoms much larger than themselves. However, very little is known about the grazer-prey relationships between heterotrophic nanoflagellates and diatoms in aquatic ecosystems. A diatom-feeding flagellate was discovered in the bottom sediment of OnagawaBay. It fed and proliferated on diatoms, especially Skeletonema costatum sensu lato. This study determined growth and ingestion rates of the flagellate on Skeletonema costatum s.l. under laboratory conditons. Its grazing pressure on the sinking flux of S. costatum s.l. was calculated by combining field data. Specific growth rate of the flagellate increased with increasing prey concentration. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.79 d–1 and maximum ingestion rate of the flagellate was 0.66 ng·C·grazer–1·d–1. Calculated grazing pressure of the flagellate on S. costatum s.l. flux was up to 25.6%. The results imply that the flagellate has a considerable grazing impact on S. costatum s.l. flux at least in a restricted season of the year. Therefore, the present study suggests that this benthic flagellate plays an important role in pelagic-benthic coupling inOnagawaBay.
We will study global properties of evolutional Lotka-Volterra system. We assume that the predatory efficiency is a function of a character of species whose evolution obeys a quantitative genetic model. We will show that the structure of a solution is rather different from that of a non-evolutional system. We will analytically show new ecological features of the dynamics.
in the extendibility are growing after the introduction of the LPP (Laser
Produced Plasma) EUV source technology in the semiconductor industry, towards
higher average power and shorter wavelength, based on the basic architecture of
the established LPP EUV source technology. It is discussed in this article that
the power scaling of the 13.5nm wavelength source is essentially possible by a
slight increase of the driving laser power, CE (Conversion Efficiency) and EUV
collection efficiency by some introduction of novel component technologies.
Extension of the EUV wavelength towards BEUV (Beyond EUV), namely 6.x nm is
discussed based on the general rule of the UTA (Unresolved Transition Arrays)
of high Z ions, and development of multilayer mirrors in this particular
wavelength region. Technical difficulties are evaluated for the extension of
the LPP source technology by considering the narrower mirror bandwidth and
higher melting temperature of the candidate plasma materials. Alternative approach
based on the superconducting FEL is evaluated in comparison with the LPP source
technology for the future solution.
It was tried to prepare composite particles made of polymer and two kinds of solid powders by forming Pickeringemulsion followed by the drying-in-liquid method and to investigate how the stepwise addition of solid powders affected the contained ratio and adhesion ratio of solid powders and the structure of composite particles. Limonene oil dissolving expanded polystyrene and ethylene glycol were adopted as the dispersed phase and the continuous phase, respectively. Magnetite and titanium dioxide were used as solid powders. Magnetite was added before or after formation of the (O/W) dispersion. Titanium dioxide was added at the various elapsed times from addition of magnetite. Titanium dioxide adhered only on the surface of composite particles irrespective of addition time. At the earlier addition of both solid powders, the surface-covering type composite particles were prepared. At the latter addition of titanium dioxide, a part of magnetite adhered on the surface and the remainder was dispersed into composite particle.