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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 471 matches for " Yoshihiko Hosoi "
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Isolation and characterization of side population stem cells in articular synovial tissue
Takeshi Teramura, Kanji Fukuda, Shinji Kurashimo, Yoshihiko Hosoi, Yoshihisa Miki, Shigeki Asada, Chiaki Hamanishi
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-86
Abstract: Synovial tissues from bovine metacarpophalangeal joints were used as a stem cell source. For efficient collection of stem cells, we first prepared a preculture before sorting in medium containing FBS at variable concentrations for 4 days. Using a cell sorter and the Ho-dye, a poorly stained population enriched with stem cells was then isolated. To determine the characteristics of the stem cells, specific marker genes such as CD34, Flk-1, c-Kit, Abcg-2 were identified by real-time PCR. Sorted SP cells were cultured in a stem cell medium supplemented with bFGF, SCF and fibronectin, and evaluated for their differentiation potentials into chondrocytes, osteocytes and myocytes.SP cells of synovium tissue were increased from 2% of the total cell population to approximately 10% of the total cells by preculture in the 1%FBS contained medium. Sorted SP cells expressed CD34, Flk-1, c-Kit, Abcg-2 and Mdr-1 -all are important marker genes for stem cell characteristics. The SP cells could be further expanded ex vivo while maintaining stem cell potentials such as marker gene expression, Ho-dye efflux potential and multiple differentiation potentials into chondrocyte, osteocyte and myocyte.In the present study, we demonstrated that the cells with outstanding stem cell properties were efficiently collected as a SP fraction from bovine synovial membrane. Furthermore, we have described an efficient isolation method and the culture conditions for ex vivo expansion that maintains their important characteristics. Our results suggest that the SP cells of synovium tissue might be important candidates as sources for cell transplantation.Lesions on articular cartilage are difficult to heal spontaneously, and there is no effective strategy for inducing their repair. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is now an established technique for the repair of symptomatic isolated lesions of articular cartilage in young adults [1,2]. However, surgical invasion of normal articular cartilage and l
Transient Macroamylasemia in a Severely Multiple-Handicapped Child Following the Development of Acute Bronchitis  [PDF]
Yoshihiko Sakurai
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.53035
Abstract: Macroamylasemia is a condition of elevated serum amylase levels in which normal serum amylase form a complex with high molecular weight proteins such as immunoglobulins. This is a case report on a patient with macroamylasemia following acute asthmatic bronchitis. A 5-year-old male with cerebral palsy and developmental retardation was admitted to our hospital because of high fever and severe cough. Treatment of the respiratory symptoms provided symptomatic improvement, but the serum amylase levels became suddenly elevated. Although acute pancreatitis associated with respiratory infection was initially suspected, a predominant salivary isoamylase, normal serum lipase level, low urine amylase level, and low amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) (0.58%) indicated macroamylasemia. The serum amylase level decreased, and the ACCR increased within normal range 2 weeks after discharge. Both of these indicators have been within normal range over the past year. Transient macroamylasemia can be misdiagnosed as acute pancreatitis, especially in a severely multiple-handicapped child who is unable to complain. The ACCR is useful in the diagnosis of macroamylasemia.
Early-Stage Juvenile Fibromyalgia in a 12-Year-Old Girl  [PDF]
Yoshihiko Sakurai
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.54053
Abstract: Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is often diagnosed at a later stage. Therefore, little is known about its early phase. A 12-year-old girl with persistent lumbago without fever consulted an orthopedist, but imaging studies showed no abnormalities and analgesics were ineffective. She therefore visited our pediatric clinic. On digital palpation, she had pain in 13 of the 18 tender point sites of fibromyalgia. The blood test results were unremarkable. A medical interview revealed character tendencies often seen in patients with JFM; she was serious-minded, uncompromising, and showed excessive concern for others. Furthermore, psychological stress for the approaching annual sports day might have built up. All factors considered, early-stage JFM was the probable diagnosis. The patient accepted the diagnosis and understood that the disease may be psychogenic. Getting through the sports day cured her symptoms. This case highlights the importance of initial care, including a detailed explanation, in those with JFM.
GSE Is a Maternal Factor Involved in Active DNA Demethylation in Zygotes
Yuki Hatanaka, Natsumi Shimizu, Satoshi Nishikawa, Mikiko Tokoro, Seung-Wook Shin, Takuji Nishihara, Tomoko Amano, Masayuki Anzai, Hiromi Kato, Tasuku Mitani, Yoshihiko Hosoi, Satoshi Kishigami, Kazuya Matsumoto
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060205
Abstract: After fertilization, the sperm and oocyte genomes undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming to form a totipotent zygote. The dynamic epigenetic changes during early embryo development primarily involve DNA methylation and demethylation. We have previously identified Gse (gonad-specific expression gene) to be expressed specifically in germ cells and early embryos. Its encoded protein GSE is predominantly localized in the nuclei of cells from the zygote to blastocyst stages, suggesting possible roles in the epigenetic changes occurring during early embryo development. Here, we report the involvement of GSE in epigenetic reprogramming of the paternal genome during mouse zygote development. Preferential binding of GSE to the paternal chromatin was observed from pronuclear stage 2 (PN2) onward. A knockdown of GSE by antisense RNA in oocytes produced no apparent effect on the first and second cell cycles in preimplantation embryos, but caused a significant reduction in the loss of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and the accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) in the paternal pronucleus. Furthermore, DNA methylation levels in CpG sites of LINE1 transposable elements, Lemd1, Nanog and the upstream regulatory region of the Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) gene were clearly increased in GSE-knockdown zygotes at mid-pronuclear stages (PN3-4), but the imprinted H19-differential methylated region was not affected. Importantly, DNA immunoprecipitation of 5 mC and 5 hmC also indicates that knockdown of GSE in zygotes resulted in a significant reduction of the conversion of 5 mC to 5 hmC on LINE1. Therefore, our results suggest an important role of maternal GSE for mediating active DNA demethylation in the zygote.
Fluvoxamine Attenuated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Leptin Resistance
Toru Hosoi
Frontiers in Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2012.00012
Abstract: Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) is involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. However, pharmacological treatments targeting ER stress are not well understood. In the present study, we found that fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for depression, can attenuate ER stress-induced “leptin resistance,” i.e., insensitivity to the anti-obesity hormone leptin. Treatment with tunicamycin, an ER stress-inducing reagent, caused cell death which was significantly inhibited by fluvoxamine. Leptin activates JAK2–STAT3 signaling. ER stress caused an impairment of leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation which was reversed by fluvoxamine. Fluvoxamine would be a novel leptin-sensitizing drug, which targets ER stress.
Enhancing Effects of Post-Learning Stress on Memory  [PDF]
Mingming Lin, Yoshihiko Tanno
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.35059
Abstract: To investigate the enhancing effect of post-learning stress on memory, we requested 38 Japanese undergraduates to perform a learning task that involved positive, negative, and neutral words with controlled arousal and subsequently assigned them to a stress group (exposed to acute white noise) or a control group. After a 10-min filler task, we administered a delayed free recall test and a recognition test. We found that exposure to acute stress after learning significantly enhanced recognition memory of words, but found no differences in memory scores for stimuli of varying valence. We accordingly propose that post-learning stress, though enhancing memory performance, may not depend on word valence when stimulus arousal is controlled. This is the first study to find that post-learning stress enhances memory after a short delay, and it has several implications with regard to traumatic memories in stress-related disorders.
A Study of Pansharpened Images Based on the HSI Transformation Approach  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Mitani, Yoshihiko Hamamoto
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.512B031
Abstract: A pan-sharpen technique artificially produces a high-resolution image by image fusion techniques using high-resolution panchromatic and low-resolution multispectral images. Thus, the appearance of the color image can improve. In this paper, the effectiveness of three pan-sharpening methods based on the HSI transform approach is investigated. Three models are the hexcone, double hexcones, and Haydn’s approach. Furthermore, the effect of smoothing the low-resolution multispectral image is also investigated. The smoothing techniques are the Gaussian filter and the bilateral filter. The experimental results show that Haydn’s model is superior to others. The effectiveness of smoothing the low-resolution multispectral image is also shown.
Mediating Role of Decentering in the Associations between Self-Reflection, Self-Rumination, and Depressive Symptoms  [PDF]
Masaki Mori, Yoshihiko Tanno
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.65059
Abstract: Theorists have suggested that self-focused attention has adaptive and maladaptive aspects and have proposed self-rumination and self-reflection. Previous research on self-focus and mindfulness have shown that self-rumination increases depression and counteracts decentering which is the capacity to take a detached view of one’s thoughts and emotions. On the contrary, although self-reflection was defined as an adaptive type of self-focus, its contents or mode have not been examined, and the mechanism of its contribution to psychological adjustment is still not well understood. Hence, we explored the function of self-reflection in relation to decentering to elucidate its adaptivity. Two-hundred and forty-nine Japanese undergraduate students participated in our cross-sectional questionnaire study. Mediation analysis indicated that individuals with higher levels of self-reflection showed more decentering and less depressive symptoms while self-ruminative participants showed less decentering and more depressive symptoms. This result suggests that self-reflection involves decentered self-focused attention, and its adaptive function appears when self-reflection leads to increased decentering.
Modulatory Effect of Motivation on the Association of Trait Anxiety and Cognitive Performance: A Pupillometric Study  [PDF]
Takatoshi Hoshino, Yoshihiko Tanno
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.77020
Abstract: The attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that trait anxiety disrupts functional efficiency of executive control of attention relating to working memory system such as shifting. ACT also emphasizes the modulatory role of motivation in anxiety on cognitive task performance. The present study investigated the association of trait anxiety-related inefficiencies in attentional shift and working memory performance in conjunction with the level of motivation. A variation of complex span paradigm is designed to systematically manipulate the time constraint on shifting attentional focus back and forth between working memory contents and processing task was used in this study. In the experiment, participants high and low in trait anxiety were allocated either high or low motivation induction conditions, and performed a series of complex span tasks. They also completed a state anxiety measure before and after the experimental task. Motivational states were assessed by the pupil dilation, which is known to reflect the amount of cognitive effort invested on the task at hand. Results showed that, only in low motivation condition, high trait-anxious individuals exhibited greater difficulty, relative to those low in trait anxiety, in maintaining working memory contents as the task demand increased. State anxiety showed no relation to working memory performance regardless of the level of motivation and task demands. Pupillary responses revealed that, in high motivational state, high trait-anxious individuals invested more effort than those low in trait anxiety when the task demand was low, F(1, 132) = 6.65, p = 0.0110, to moderate, F(1, 132) = 8.441, p = 0.00043. In accordance with ACT, these findings suggest that motivation can modulate the association between trait anxiety and cognitive performance along with the levels of task demand. Clinical implication is briefly discussed.
Fluorescent Voltage Imaging Technique for the Measurement of Molluscan Neural Activities  [PDF]
Yuuta Hamasaki, Makoto Hosoi, Shogo Nakada, Tomoya Shimokawa, Minoru Saito
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2013.31A007
Abstract:

The electrophysiological methods using microelectrodes are not appropriate for the simultaneous measurement of neural activities of many neurons. To overcome the difficulty, the fluorescent imaging technique using voltage sensitive dyes can be a powerful technique. The voltage sensitive dyes, however, generally exhibit a relatively small change in their fluorescence intensities, resulting in a low S/N ratio. Additionally, they often exhibit photobleaching and phototoxity. We have therefore improved the fluorescent voltage imaging technique by using a LED as the light source and an electron multiplying (EM)-CCD camera as the fluorescence detector. In this study, we applied our imaging system for the measurement of two kind of molluscan neural activities; one of which is involved in the olfactory processing of the land slug Limax valentianus and the other is involved in the feeding rhythm of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The system enabled us to measure the neural activities for a long time with a high speed and a high S/N ratio, and the obtained results showed some new physiological findings.

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