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Classification of Emphysema Subtypes: Comparative Assessment of Local Binary Patterns and Related Texture Features  [PDF]
Mizuho Nishio, Hisanobu Koyama, Yoshiharu Ohno, Kazuro Sugimura
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/act.2015.43007
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess usefulness of local binary patterns (LBP) and related texture features, namely completed local binary patterns (CLBP) and local ternary patterns (LTP), for the classification of emphysema subtypes on low-dose CT images. Fifty patients (34 men and 16 women; age, 67.5 ± 10.1 years) who underwent low-dose CT (60 mAs) were included. They were comprised of 17 never smokers, 13 smokers without COPD, and 20 smokers with COPD. By consensus reading of low-dose CT images from these patients, two radiologists selected 3681 nonoverlapping regions of interest (ROIs) and annotated them as one of the following three classes: normal tissue, centrilobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. From these ROIs, histogram of CT densities, LBP, CLBP, and LTP were calculated, and the 3 types of texture histograms were concatenated with the CT density histogram. These 3 types of histograms (referred to as combined LBP, combined CLBP, and combined LTP) were used to classify ROI using linear support vector machine. For each type of the combined histogram, the accuracy of classification was determined by patient-based 10-fold cross validation. The best accuracy of combined LBP, combined CLBP, and combined LTP were 81.36%, 82.99%, and 83.29%, respectively. Compared to the classification accuracies obtained with combined LBP, those with combined LTP or combined CLBP were consistently improved. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that, on low-dose CT, LTP and CLBP were more useful for the classification of emphysema subtypes than LBP.
Observation of the Thermal Conductivity due to Spins in the One-Dimensional Antiferromagnetic Ising-Like Spin System ACoX3 (A = Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br)
Yoshiharu Matsuoka,Takayuki Kawamata,Koki Naruse,Masumi Ohno,Yoichi Nishiwaki,Tetsuya Kato,Takahiko Sasaki,Yoji Koike
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.7566/JPSJ.83.064603
Abstract: Thermal conductivity measurements have been carried out for single crystals of the onedimensional (1D) antiferromagnetic (AF) Ising-like spin system ACoX3 (A = Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br). A shoulder originating from the thermal conductivity due to spin excitations, \k{appa}?spin, has been observed around 60 K in the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity along the c-axis parallel to spin chains for every ACoX3. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of ?\k{appa}spin in 1D AF Ising-like spin systems. It has been found that the magnitude of ?\k{appa}spin in ACoX3 is a little smaller than those in 1D AF Heisenberg spin systems. The reason is discussed in terms of the Heisenberg-like character in ACoX3.
Local Particle-Ghost Symmetry  [PDF]
Yoshiharu Kawamura
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.612174
Abstract: We study the quantization of systems with local particle-ghost symmetries. The systems contain ordinary particles including gauge bosons and their counterparts obeying different statistics. The particle-ghost symmetries are new type of fermionic symmetries between ordinary particles and their ghost partners, different from the space-time supersymmetry and the BRST symmetry. There is a possibility that they are useful to explain phenomena of elementary particles at a more fundamental level, by extension of our systems. We show that our systems are formulated consistently or subsidiary conditions on states guarantee the unitarity of systems, as the first step towards the construction of a realistic fundamental theory.
Pilot Study on Gas Patterns of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Following Ingestion of Lactulose  [PDF]
Yoshiharu Uno
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.511025
Abstract: Background & Aims: Fermentation site and increasing time of symptomatic gas would be different between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The aim of this study was to determine the time for increase in abdominal gas following ingestion of lactulose and the possibility of differential diagnosis of SIBO and IBS. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on a series of IBS patients (n = 14) who were referred to the Oroku-Hospital (Okinawa, Japan) from June 6, 2014 to December 30, 2014. Imaging was first performed in early morning after fasting. After ingestion of lactulose, 1 - 4 plain abdominal radiographs were taken for investigation of increased gas during the indicated timeframe. Regions of interest of the gas areas were highlighted on the images obtained. Gas images were divided into three areas, the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, and each total area was calculated. Results: At a dose of 10 g lactulose and an observation time of two hours, patients displayed no symptoms, and the gas volume was only slightly increased. However, when the dose of lactulose was increased (13 g/50 kg), and the observation time for the lactulose challenge was extended to 240 - 300 minutes, the results clearly demonstrated an increase in the gas produced in IBS patients. Conclusions: An increased dose of lactulose coupled with an extended observation time for the lactulose challenge clearly demonstrated an increase in the gas produced in IBS patients. Alterations in diet rather than antibiotics might reduce IBS symptoms.
Thermal conductivity and annealing effects in the iron-based superconductor FeSe$_{0.3}$Te$_{0.7}$
Masumi Ohno,Takayuki Kawamata,Takashi Noji,Koki Naruse,Yoshiharu Matsuoka,Tadashi Adachi,Terukazu Nishizaki,Takahiko Sasaki,Yoji Koike
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.7566/JPSJ.83.044704
Abstract: Thermal conductivity measurements in magnetic fields have been carried out for FeSe$_{0.3}$Te$_{0.7}$ single crystals as-grown and annealed at 400 {\degree}C for 100 h in vacuum ($\sim$ 10$^{-4}$ Pa). It has been found that the thermal conductivity in the {\it ab}-plane, {\kab}, of the annealed crystal shows an enhancement at low temperatures just below the superconducting transition temperature, {\tc}, owing to the thermal conductivity due to quasiparticles, while {\kab} of the as-grown crystal does not. This suggests that FeSe$_{1-x}$Te$_{x}$ is a strongly correlated electron system. It has also been found that both the degree of the enhancement of {\kab} just below {\tc} and the behavior of the suppression of {\kab} by the application of magnetic field for the annealed crystal depend on the thickness of the crystal. These results indicate that bulk superconductivity is absent in the as-grown crystal, appears only in the surface area in the annealed-thick crystal and appears in the almost whole region in the annealed-thin crystal. It has been concluded that the excess Fe included in the as-grown crystal is removed from the surface through the vacuum-annealing.
Increased Expression of Phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1) and (16:0/18:2) in Thyroid Papillary Cancer
Seiji Ishikawa, Ichiro Tateya, Takahiro Hayasaka, Noritaka Masaki, Yoshinori Takizawa, Satoshi Ohno, Tsuyoshi Kojima, Yoshiharu Kitani, Morimasa Kitamura, Shigeru Hirano, Mitsutoshi Setou, Juichi Ito
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048873
Abstract: A good prognosis can be expected for most, but not all, cases of thyroid papillary cancer. Numerous molecular studies have demonstrated beneficial treatment and prognostic factors in various molecular markers. Whereas most previous reports have focused on genomics and proteomics, few have focused on lipidomics. With the advent of mass spectrometry (MS), it has become possible to identify many types of molecules, and this analytical tool has become critical in the field of omics. Recently, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was developed. After a simple pretreatment process, IMS can be used to examine tissue sections on glass slides with location information. Here, we conducted an IMS analysis of seven cases of thyroid papillary cancer by comparison of cancerous with normal tissues, focusing on the distribution of phospholipids. We identified that phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1) and (16:0/18:2) and sphingomyelin (d18:0/16:1) are significantly higher in thyroid papillary cancer than in normal thyroid tissue as determined by tandem mass (MS/MS) analysis. These distributional differences may be associated with the biological behavior of thyroid papillary cancer.
Magnetic State of the Geometrically Frustrated Quasi-One-Dimensional Spin System Cu$_3$Mo$_2$O$_9$ Studied by Thermal Conductivity
Koki Naruse,Takayuki Kawamata,Masumi Ohno,Yoshiharu Matsuoka,Masashi Hase,Haruhiko Kuroe,Tomoyuki Sekine,Kunihiko Oka,Toshimitsu Ito,Hiroshi Eisaki,Takahiko Sasaki,Yoji Koike
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We have measured the thermal conductivity of the geometrically frustrated quasi-onedimensional spin system Cu$_3$Mo$_2$O$_9$ in magnetic fields. A contribution of the thermal conductivity due to spins has been observed in the thermal conductivity along the spin chains. The thermal conductivity due to phonons, $\kappa_{\rm phonon}$, has been found to decrease by the application of a magnetic field, which has been explained as being due to the reduction in the spin gap originating from the spin-singlet dimers. Moreover, it has been found that $\kappa_{\rm phonon}$ increases with increasing field in high fields above ~7 T at low temperatures. This suggests the existence of a novel field-induced spin state and is discussed in terms of the possible spin-chirality ordering in a frustrated Mott insulator.
Tera Scale Remnants of Unification and Supersymmetry at Planck Scale
Kawamura, Yoshiharu
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: We predict new particles at the Tera scale based on the assumptions that the standard model gauge interactions are unified around the gravitational scale with a big desert and new particles originate from hypermultiplets as remnants of supersymmetry, and propose a theoretical framework at the Tera scale and beyond, that has predictability.
Temporary Grand Unified Theory in Unphysical World
Kawamura, Yoshiharu
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.121.1049
Abstract: We construct grand unified models on an orbifold based on unphysical grand unification. The reduction to the standard model or its supersymmetric one is carried out using a variant of Parisi-Sourlas mechanism and nontrivial $Z_2$ parity assignment.
Topological Grand Unification
Kawamura, Yoshiharu
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.121.289
Abstract: We propose a new grand unification scenario for ensuring proton stability and triplet-doublet Higgs mass splitting with the help of topological symmetry and dynamics.
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