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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 871 matches for " Yoshiaki Inukai "
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Characterization of a Tos17 Insertion Mutant of Rice Auxin Signal Transcription Factor Gene, OsARF24  [PDF]
Tomoaki Sakamoto, Yoshiaki Inukai
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.41013
Abstract: Auxin signaling plays a key role in the regulation of various growth and developmental processes in higher plants. Auxin response factors (ARFs) are transcription factors that regulate the expression of auxin-response genes. The osarf24-1 mutant contains a truncation of domain IV in the C-terminal dimerization domain of a rice ARF protein, OsARF24. This mutant showed auxin-deficient phenotypes and reduced sensitivity to auxin. However, OsARF24 protein contains an SPL-rich repression domain in its middle region and acts as a transcriptional repressor. These results imply that the C-terminal dimerization domain, especially the C-terminal half of domain IV, is essential for the proper regulation of OsARF24 function as a transcriptional repressor in rice.
Effect of Various Intensities of Drought Stress on δ13C Variation among Plant Organs in Rice: Comparison of Two Cultivars  [PDF]
Mana Kano-Nakata, Jiro Tatsumi, Yoshiaki Inukai, Shuichi Asanuma, Akira Yamauchi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511183

The δ13C value is widely used to assess the effects of drought on water status in plants. However, there is little information regarding the δ13C signature in different organs of rice. We conducted a field study to examine whether the δ13C among different plant parts would be affected by the intensities of drought, and to evaluate genotypic variation in δ13C fluctuation among plant parts affected by drought intensities. Two cultivars, “Nipponbare” (Oryzasativa ssp. japonica) and “Kasalath” (O. sativa ssp. indica), were grown in the field with a line-source sprinkler system. The δ13C values of panicles, flag leaves, straws, culms, and roots were measured from plant samples. The δ13C value increased as drought stress increased, especially in the panicles and roots. “Nipponbare” showed higher values of δ13C than “Kasalath” under the well-watered and mild drought stress conditions, but there was no significant difference between the genotypes in the δ13C value under the severe drought stress condition. The variation in δ13C value among different plant parts was also increased with increasing drought stress. In contrast, these variations were small under well-watered conditions. Furthermore, there was much greater

Decision under ambiguity: Effects of sign and magnitude
Keigo Inukai,Taiki Takahashi
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Decision under ambiguity (uncertainty with unknown probabilities) has been attracting attention in behavioral and neuroeconomics. However, recent neuroimaging studies have mainly focused on gain domains while little attention has been paid to the magnitudes of outcomes. In this study, we examined the effects of the sign (i.e. gain and loss) and magnitude of outcomes on ambiguity aversion and the additivity of subjective probabilities in Ellsberg's urn problem. We observed that (i) ambiguity aversion was observed in both signs, and (ii) subadditivity of subjective probability was not observed in negative outcomes.
Sensory Evaluation Spectrum Method as a Descriptive Sensory Analysis  [PDF]
Yoshie Yamagata, Yoshiaki Sugawara
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.514170
Abstract: Sensory evaluation is used to measure consciousness, and primarily developed in experimental and mathematical psychology. Sensory experiences can be reported using verbal (semantic) methods. This paper presents an overview of our semantic research achievements over the past decade, focusing on methodological attempts for substantiating the measure as a descriptive sensory analysis. Two types of studies that deserve particular attention are detailed: 1) evaluation of the efficacy of photo catalytic elimination of stains or bio-aerosols in air using TiO2 and photo catalytic deodorizing properties of a TiO2-type deodorizer; and 2) evaluation of the differential discrimination of perceived odor quality for a given aroma while inhaling the fragrances of essential oils. Both studies are based on semantic responses of participants. The perceived sensory attributes in the participants can be represented by a sensory spectrum: a bar graph whereby the mean of the impressions is plotted against the setting semantic impression descriptors. In the former study, we provide a background on the sensory evaluation spectrum method and discuss its implementation as a measure of descriptive sensory analysis. The latter study additionally demonstrates how statistical defects were overcome when spectra were not statistically significant.
Effect of Postoperative Administration of Saireito for Bilateral Chronic Subdural Hematomas  [PDF]
Satoshi Utsuki, Hidehiro Oka, Chihiro Kijima, Madoka Inukai, Katsutoshi Abe, Kimitoshi Sato, Sachio Suzuki, Kiyotaka Fujii
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.23047
Abstract: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the efficacy of saireito for bilateral chronic subdural hematomas (B-CSDH). Between April 2006 and March 2010, a total of 18 patients undergoing unilateral burr hole drainage for B-CSDH took part in a controlled clinical study. Postoperative status of the nonsurgical side was subsequently evaluated, with (n = 10) and without (n = 8) saireito administration. Two in the saireito-treated group patients and four in the control group patients ultimately required contralateral surgical intervention. The remainder, including eight saireito-treated hematomas, resolved without further surgery, generally within eight weeks of the surgical side procedure. However, two of the four resolving control lesions took longer to regress. The hydragogue and anti-inflammatory/steroid-evoking properties ascribed to saireito may facilitate hematoma resolution. After unilateral surgery for B-CSDH, saireito administration may prevent symptomatic deterioration of a contralateral low-density CSDH, preempting subsequent surgery.
Preoperative Prediction of Whether Intraoperative Fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX Can Be Achieved by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Administration  [PDF]
Satoshi Utsuki, Hidehiro Oka, Chihiro Kijima, Madoka Inukai, Kiyotaka Fujii, Masahiro Ishizuka, Kiwamu Takahashi, Katsushi Inoue
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.32026
Abstract: Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence-guided brain tumor resection, using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), is among the most valuable tools for determining tumor removal area. However, PPIX fluorescence is not necessarily achieved during an operation visually even when 5-ALA is used, and we do not know until tumor exposure to the excitation light of the ultraviolet region whether PPIX fluorescence has been achieved. When a particular biopsy and frozen section diagnosis is made, the reason for lack of PPIX fluorescence in the tissue cannot be judged. We do not know whether the tumor fails to fluoresce or no fluorescence is seen because it is not the main body of the tumor. We investigated whether the presence or absence of tumor fluorescence could be predicted by examining urinary porphyrin before surgery, at the time of intraoperative fluorescence diagnosis using 5-ALA. The urine of brain tumor patients 2 hours after 5-ALA administration was irradiated with a 405 ± 1 nm laser light. The patients were divided into a fluorescent urine group and negative fluorescent urine group. Red fluorescence was observed in response to the 405 ± 1 nm laser beam for all tumors in the fluorescent urine group. Clear red fluorescence was not observed even with 405 ± 1 nm laser beam irradiation in any tumors in the negative fluorescent urine group. Preoperative prediction of the intraoperative fluorescence of PPIX can be achieved by observation of urine 2 hours after 5-ALA administration with exposure to a 405 ± 1 nm laser light.
Role of bile acid sequestrants in the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Kohzo Takebayashi,Yoshimasa Aso,Toshihiko Inukai
World Journal of Diabetes , 2010,
Abstract: Cholestyramine is a first-generation bile acid sequestrant (BAS) and antihyperlipidemic agent that currently has limited use because of its relatively weak effect on lowering low density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (C) and poor tolerability. The current first choice drugs for hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) because of their strong LDL-C lowering effects and efficacy in prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, after lowering the target levels of LDL-C in very high risk patients, combination therapy with statins and other antihyperlipidemic drugs may become more important for treatment of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia. Second-generation BASs such as colesevelam and colestimide have a glucose-lowering effect and improved tolerance, which has led to re-evaluation of their utility in combination with statins or antidiabetic agents.
Effects of long-term monotherapy with glimepiride vs glibenclamide on glycemic control and macrovascular events in Japanese Type 2 diabetic patients  [PDF]
Hirohisa Onuma, Kouichi Inukai, Masaki Watanabe, Yoshikazu Sumitani, Toshio Hosaka, Hitoshi Ishida
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.41006

We investigated whether long-term glimepiride (GP) monotherapy improves insulin resistance and exerts a beneficial effect on beta cell function, as compared with glibenclamide (GC). One hundred Japanese Type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to the GP (n = 50) or the GC (n = 50) group. During a 5-year monitoring period, patients received the indicated SU monotherapy, while changes in SU doses were allowed as needed to maintain HbA1C below 7.0%. The GC group, in parallel with fasting insulin, showed a rapid homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-R increase and maintained a high HOMA-R level. In contrast, HOMA-R in the GP group decreased continuously, from 2.9 at baseline to 1.8 at study completion. In the GC group, HOMA-b was markedly increased in the first 6 months, then gradually decreased through 18 months. While the HOMA-β elevation in the GP group was more moderate than that in the GC group, HOMA-β levels were maintained with a slight decrease. The cumulative macrovascular disease outcome was 1 for the GP and 7 for the GC group, showing a significant difference. These results suggest that glimepiride monotherapy markedly improved HOMA-R with moderate insulin stimulation, which may account for the difference in macrovascular disease development as compared with the group receiving glibenclamide.

Top Quark Condensate in Grand Unified Theories
Iwana Inukai,Masaharu Tanabashi,Koichi Yamawaki
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We propose a top quark condensate scenario embedded in grand unified theories (GUTs), stressing that the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model has a nontrivial continuum limit (``renormalizability'') under certain condition which is actually satisfied in all sensible GUTs with simple group. The top quark mass prediction in this scenario is shown to be insensitive to the ultraviolet cutoff $\Lambda$ thanks to the ``renormalizability''. We also discuss a possibility to reduce the top mass prediction in this scenario.
Effectiveness of Somatic Balance Restoration Therapy to Alleviate Pain of Musculoskeletal System  [PDF]
Munehiro Mike Kayo, Yoshiaki Ohkami
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.910102
Abstract: Chronic pain and general physical discomfort are common symptoms among those seeking medical or physiotherapy treatment, as it relates to disorders found in the Human Musculoskeletal System (HMS). Since this system is highly complex and large in scale, clinical pain research has been confounded by many complex factors. The goal of our research is to overcome these obstacles by applying multidisciplinary approaches including systems engineering, traditional oriental techniques, conventional medicine and related sciences. To pursue such an integrated approach this paper examines the therapist-guided exercise for restoring human musculoskeletal balance called the Somatic Balance Restoration Therapy (SBRT). The SBRT is a simple but effective self-exercise therapy with minimal assistance by a trained therapist. This therapy is analyzed by a mechanical engineering method by modeling the human body as a multi-body subject to a static equilibrium condition. In addition, the wording has been rewritten in functional anatomical terms, enabling smooth communication between specialists of three different disciplines: therapy, conventional medicine and systems engineering. Examples will be given to demonstrate an integrated and systematic approach for identifying and remedying malfunctions within the HMS.
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