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ZnO Heteroepitaxy on Sapphire Using a Novel Buffer Layer of Titanium Oxide: Crystallographic Behavior  [PDF]
Satoshi Yamauchi, Yoh Imai
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2013.22006
Abstract: A novel buffer layer consists of titanium oxide grown on a-sapphire by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition using titanum-tetra-iso-propoxide and oxygen gas was used for ZnO epitaxial growth at temperature as low as 340 by plasma-assisted epitaxy using radio-frequency oxygen-gas plasma. XRD and RHEED indicated (0001)Ti2O3 layer in corundum crystal system was epitaxially grown on the substrate in an in-plane relationship of [1-100]Ti2O3// [0001]Al2O3 by uniaxial phase-lock system. Growth behavior of ZnO layer was significantly dependent on the Ti2O3 buffer-layer thickness, for example, dense columnar ZnO-grains were grown on the buffer layer thinner than 10 nm but the hexagonal pyramid-like grains were formed on the thin buffer layers below 2 nm. RHEED observations showed ZnO layer including the pyramid-like grains was epitaxially grown with single-domain on the thin buffer layer of 0.8 nm in the in-plane relationship of [1-100]ZnO//[1-100]Ti2O3//[0001]Al2O3, whereas the multi-domain was included in ZnO layer on the buffer layer above 10 nm.
Plasma-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films for Highly Hydrophilic Performance  [PDF]
Satoshi Yamauchi, Yoh Imai
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2013.21001
Abstract: Titanium-oxide layer was grown on glass substrate by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) using oxygen gas plasma excited by radio-frequency power at 13.56 MHz in the pressure as low as 3mtorr at relatively low temperature below 400oC, and studied on the crystallographic properties with the hydrophilic behavior comparing to the layer deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). Raman spectra indicated anatase-phase TiO2 layer without amorphous-phase could be formed above 340oC by simultaneous supply of plasma-cracked and non-cracked titanium-tetra-iso-propoxide (TTIP) used as preliminary precursor. Surface Scanning Electron Microscope images indicated the PCVD-layer consists of distinct nanometer-size plate-like columnar grains, in contrast to rugged micrometer-size grains in the LPCVD-layer. Extremely small water contact angle about 5o in dark and the quick conversion to super-hydrophilicity by UV-irradiation with a light-power density as low as 50 W/cm2 were observed on the PCVD- layer grown at 380oC, while the large initial contact angle was above 40o and the response for the UV-irradiation was gradual on the LPCVD-layer.
ZnO Heteroepitaxy on Sapphire Using a Novel Buffer Layer of Titanium Oxide: Optoelectronic Behavior  [PDF]
Satoshi Yamauchi, Yoh Imai
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2013.23014

Optoelectronic property of ZnO epitaxial layer grown by plasma-assisted epitaxy at temperature as low as 340°C using Ti2O3 buffer layer on a-sapphire were studied by low temperature photoluminescence at 10 K comparing to the layers on c-sapphire and a-sapphire without the buffer layer. The near band-edge emission consisting of free-exciton emissions and neutral-donor bound exciton emissions was significantly dependent on the buffer thickness and dominated by the free-exciton emissions in the layer grown on the very thin buffer layer about 0.8 nm, whereas the intense emissions by neutral-donor bound excitons were observed in the ZnO layer on c-sapphire. The structural behavior indicated the donor was originated from the three-dimensional growth of ZnO layer and details of the optoelectronic feature suggested the residual donors were Al and interstitial-Zn.

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy to Identify and Evaluate Anomer in Lactose  [PDF]
Satoshi Yamauchi, Sakura Hatakeyam, Yoh Imai, Masayoshi Tonouchi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.412092

Lactose powder consisting of α-D-lactose monohydrate and anhydrous β-D-lactose was nondestructively and quantitatively evaluated by transmission-type Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). An absorption with peak at 39.7 cm-1 (1.19 THz) was assigned to be derived from anhydrous β-D-lactose, in addition to the absorptions due to α-D-lactose monohydrate with peak at 17.1 cm-1 (0.53 THz) and 45.6 cm-1 (1.37 THz). After deconvolution of the spectra using Lorentzian, integrated intensities of the absorptions with peak at 39.7 cm-1 and 45.6 cm-1 were uniquely dependent on the weight composition ratio of the α-and β-lactose powder. As a result, the net molar-ratio of the α-and β-lactose in lactose powder could be precisely evaluated by the integrated intensity ratio. Further, anomer content in lactose powder extracted from lactose solution was evaluated and the refined and unrefined features were shown by the evaluation method.

Coloring Characteristic of Lead Glass for X-Ray Irradiation  [PDF]
Michiharu Sekimoto, Yoh Katoh
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2015.53004
Abstract: The lead glass used in an X-ray examination room is indispensable for watching a subject being tested or a situation of operation of an X-ray generator, but because it is some structure equipment of an X-ray examination room, it must obey legal restrictions. Although the standard for lead glass is determined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), there are few reports about the characteristics related to interaction with radiation. We performed a comparison of three lead glass products, which are principally used in world. As for three products, differences are not looked by physics and chemical characteristics features. Simply the difference was looked by the coloring characteristic for an interaction with radiation. Furthermore, we checked that temporal decolorization of coloring had two half-lives. The short half-life is about 28 hours and the long half-life is about 107 days.
Trochanteric Fracture of a Congenital/Developmental Dislocation of the Hip in an Elderly Woman: A Case Report  [PDF]
Kazuhiro Imai
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2011.11001
Abstract: An 87-year-old woman with a residual dislocated hip suffered a trochanteric fracture on the ipsilateral side. The fracture was treated by open reduction and internal fixation surgery with good results. To treat a proximal femoral fracture of the residual dislocated hip in an elderly patient, the patient’s overall status, pre-fracture ability, hip joint configuration, and fracture pattern should be considered.
In Vivo Investigation of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses Sub-Periosteally Implanted on the Bone Surface  [PDF]
Kazuhiro Imai
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.41009

Bulk metallic glasses (BMG) show higher strength and lower Young’s modulus than SUS 316L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. This study aimed to investigate the reaction of Zr-based BMG sub-periosteally implanted on the surface of the rat femur, thereby evaluate the possibility of the BMG as biomaterials for osteosynthetic devices. Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG ribbons with 10 mm length, 2 mm width and 0.5 mm thickness were implanted sub-periosteally on the femur surface in three male Wistar rats for 6 weeks. Systemic effects were evaluated by measuring Cu and Ni levels in the blood, and local effects were evaluated by the histological observation of the surrounding soft tissues in contact with the BMG. The reaction of the surface of the BMG was examined with scanning electron microscopy. No increase of Cu and Ni levels in the blood was recognized. In the scanning electron microscopy observation, spherical deposits which were considered as sodium chloride crystals were observed. Neither breakage nor pitting corrosion was noted. BMG will be a promising metallic biomaterial for osteosynthetic device that must be removed.

Inclusions and positive cones of von Neumann algebras
Yoh Tanimoto
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: We consider cones in a Hilbert space associated to two von Neumann algebras and determine when one algebra is included in the other. If a cone is assocated to a von Neumann algebra, the Jordan structure is naturally recovered from it and we can characterize projections of the given von Neumann algebra with the structure in some special situations.
Noninteraction of waves in two-dimensional conformal field theory
Yoh Tanimoto
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-012-1439-6
Abstract: In higher dimensional quantum field theory, irreducible representations of the Poincare group are associated with particles. Their counterpart in two-dimensional massless models are "waves" introduced by Buchholz. In this paper we show that waves do not interact in two-dimensional Moebius covariant theories and in- and out-asymptotic fields coincide. We identify the set of the collision states of waves with the subspace generated by the chiral components of the Moebius covariant net from the vacuum. It is also shown that Bisognano-Wichmann property, dilation covariance and asymptotic completeness (with respect to waves) imply Moebius symmetry. Under natural assumptions, we observe that the maps which give asymptotic fields in Poincare covariant theory are conditional expectations between appropriate algebras. We show that a two-dimensional massless theory is asymptotically complete and noninteracting if and only if it is a chiral Moebius covariant theory.
Construction of wedge-local nets of observables through Longo-Witten endomorphisms
Yoh Tanimoto
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-012-1462-7
Abstract: A convenient framework to treat massless two-dimensional scattering theories has been established by Buchholz. In this framework, we show that the asymptotic algebra and the scattering matrix completely characterize the given theory under asymptotic completeness and standard assumptions. Then we obtain several families of interacting wedge-local nets by a purely von Neumann algebraic procedure. One particular case of them coincides with the deformation of chiral CFT by Buchholz-Lechner-Summers. In another case, we manage to determine completely the strictly local elements. Finally, using Longo-Witten endomorphisms on the U(1)-current net and the free fermion net, a large family of wedge-local nets is constructed.
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