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We introduce an ultrasound elastography method for examining the ACL. It consisted of imaging the distal ACL while applying a drawer test and analyzing the resulting displacement and strain maps, where a map refers to how a variable is distributed spatially throughout an image. Our method was applied to healthy knees of cadaveric sheep to determine whether 1) our method can consistently generate displacements and strain maps in healthy ACLs; 2) displacement and strain maps are repeatable; and 3) healthy ACLs experience similar maps. We found that our method could consistently provide displacements and strain maps of the distal ACL region. Moreover, these ACLs experienced displacement and strain maps that were positively-correlated between trials, knees, and specimens. This correlation was statistically significant between pairs of trials and between left and right knees (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the maps are indeed repeatable and similar for healthy ACLs.
Direct Expansion Ground Source Heat Pump (DXGSHP) system directly extracts
heat or cold energy from ground by consuming electricity to provide for space
conditioning. Compared with the currently widely-used secondary loop Ground
Couple Heat Pump (GCHP) system, it has higher energy efficiency, lower
operating costs, and less environmental impact. A case study is carried out in
this paper. The subject is a residential building located in Beijing, China. It
is assumed that the building adopts the DXGSHP system and the GCHP system
respectively. Annual loads and energy consumption are simulated and computed.
Then the initial cost, operating cost and CO2 emission are calculated.
The economic benefit is analyzed with the Payback Time method and the Dynamic
Annual Cost Value method. The environmental benefit is discussed mainly by
comparing the CO2 emission savings. The results show that the DXGSHP
system has higher initial costs, but lower operating costs, and less greenhouse
gas emissions. The DXGSHP system has better comprehensive benefits than the