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Contraceptive prevalence in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia
Yigzaw Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Inadequate family planning services exist in Ethiopia, where total fertility and population growth rates are markedly high. Objective: This study is aimed at assessing family planning coverage and the main factors that are associated with the usage of contraceptives among women in the 15-49 years age group. Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted in April 2004 in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia. Using the multistage sampling technique, a total of 1340 women in one urban and three rural kebeles were selected for the study. A questionnaire interview was also used for data collection. Result: It was found that 392 (71.3%) respondents from the urban kebele and 354 (44.8%) in the rural kebeles of the district had information about family planning. Three hundred and nine women (23.1%) had ever used modern family planning methods. The current CPR in the district was found to be 12.3 % (22.5% in the urban kebele and 5.2% in the rural kebeles) and most women (64.2%) used injectable contraceptives. A total of 144 (46.6%) women who had ever used contraceptives have discontinued taking contraceptives. Of those women who had never used contraceptives, 728 (70.5%) said they did not want to take contraceptives in the future. Residence, distance from health institutions, age of the women, education of the woman and the husband, as well as occupation, and religion were found to be significantly associated with the usage of contraceptives. Conclusion: CPR is low in the district, especially in rural areas. Strategies like out reach programs and the training of Community based reproductive health agents (CBRHAs) needs to be considered to increase the coverage of family planning services in the area. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 32-38
Cigarette smoking and Khat chewing among college students in North West Ethiopia
Yigzaw Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Although the percentage of the population that smokes has declined in the United States and some other countries, it is increasing in less developed countries. In Ethiopia khat (Catha edulis) is commonly used for social and religious purposes. Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among college students Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2001 in the four colleges found in North West Ethiopia. Students in each year of study were selected by systematic sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The study revealed 13.1 % life time prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and 26.7 % life time prevalence rate of khat chewing. The current prevalence of cigarette smoking was found to be 8.1 % and that of khat chewing 17.5 %. Forty six (31.7 %) of the life time smokers and 134 (45.6 %) of the life time chewers started smoking and chewing while they were senior secondary school students. Lung diseases including lung cancer were mentioned as health risk of cigarette smoking by 904 students. Conclusion: The prevalence of cigarette smoking seemed to decrease among university students but the decrease in the prevalence of khat chewing is not remarkable. Students knew the commonest health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Teachers in the high schools and colleges, parents, mass media and other concerned people should teach students about the health and social problems associated with cigarette smoking and khat chewing. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002;16(1):9-17]
Domestic violence around Gondar in Northwest Ethiopia
Tegbar Yigzaw, Anwar Yibric, Yigzaw Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2004,
Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Azmeraw Tayelgn, Desalegn T Zegeye, Yigzaw Kebede
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-78
Abstract: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey that involved an exit interview was conducted from September to November 2009 in three referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A total of 417 delivering mothers were enrolled in the study. Client satisfaction was measured using a survey instrument adopted from the Donabedian quality assessment framework. We collect data systematically from every other postnatal woman who delivered in the referral hospitals. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was applied to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome (satisfaction).The proportion of mothers who were satisfied with delivery care in this study was 61.9%. Women's satisfaction with delivery care was associated with wanted status of the pregnancy, immediate maternal condition after delivery, waiting time to see the health worker, availability of waiting area, care providers' measure taken to assure privacy during examinations, and amount of cost paid for service.The overall satisfaction of hospital delivery services in this study is found to be suboptimal. The study strongly suggests that more could be done to assure that services provided are more patient centered.One of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG5) is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 3/4 between 1990 and 2015. Pregnancy and childbirth claim the lives of an estimated half a million of women globally each year [1]. More than half of these deaths occur in Africa [1]. Ethiopia is one of the countries that have highest maternal mortality rates (MMR) in the world which is estimated to be 673/100,000 live births [2]. Part of this mortality is attributed to poor delivery care [3].The Ethiopian government and international organizations are working for making hospital delivery services accessible and usable for all pregnant women but still the proportion of births attended by a skilled birth attendant is about 18.4% [4] in 2009 which was much lower than the average level in developing count
Determinants of Pneumonia in Children Aged Two Months to Five Years in Urban Areas of Oromia Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Abel Fekadu Dadi, Yigzaw Kebede, Zelalem Birhanu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101044
Abstract: Introduction: Out of fifteen countries that have the highest death rate from clinical pneumonia in children younger than five-year-old, Ethiopia ranks as number four in the world. Regardless of this fact, efforts to identify determinants of pneumonia have been limited in Ethiopia. This study identifies the risk factors of pneumonia in children aged two months to five years in urban areas of Oromia Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods: The researchers used an institutional-based unmatched case control study. All selected cases were identified through enumeration and control cases were identified systematically. The researchers used structured interviews, and observational and anthropometric measurements to collect the required information. Result: Data were actually collected from 121 cases and 235 controls. The risk of pneumonia was diminished among children in the 2 - 11 months age group (OR = 0.15, 95%CI: 0.06, 0.36) and 12 - 23 months age group (OR = 0. 38, 95%CI: 0.15, 0.92) as compared to children in the 35 - 60 months age group. An increased risk of pneumonia was associated with the father’s primary education (1 - 4) (AOR = 10.7, 95%CI: 2.69, 42.7) and (5 - 8) (AOR = 4.67, 95%CI: 1.2, 17.9) as compared to higher education. Similarly, child cared by housekeeper and their relatives were at higher odds (AOR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.12, 6.9) of developing pneumonia as compared to child cared by their parents. Children’s having, history of diarrhea (AOR = 3.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 6.11) and household history of acute lower respiratory infection (AOR = 3.04, 95%CI: 1.20, 7.77) respectively, were at higher odds of developing pneumonia compared to their counterpart. Conclusion: This study presents the independent predisposing factors of childcare practice, child history of diarrhea and household history of acute lower respiratory infection for the occurrence of pneumonia. Actions taken against the above risk factors may help to prevent pneumonia.
Two-Thirds of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Cases in the Community Were Undiagnosed in Northwest Ethiopia: Population Based Cross-Sectional Study
Takele Tadesse, Meaza Demissie, Yemane Berhane, Yigzaw Kebede, Markos Abebe
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028258
Abstract: Background Tuberculosis (TB) case detection rate remains low in Ethiopia. One of the underlying reasons is the emphasis on passive case finding strategy which may seriously underestimate the burden of the disease. Estimating the prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary TB through active case finding at population level can help assessing the degree to which passive case detection is successful. Methods and findings This is population based cross-sectional study. The study population was all individuals aged ≥14 years. Interviews using a uniform questionnaire were done initially to identify individuals with chronic cough (≥15 days) and the two sputum (spot and morning) samples were gathered for standard smear microscopy. A total of 23,590 individuals aged ≥14 years were interviewed and 984 had a chronic cough for ≥15 days. Of 831 individuals who provided two sputum samples for acid fast bacilli (AFB), 41 had positive smears. A total of 22 smear-positive TB cases detected through passive case finding were on anti-TB treatment. The prevalence of new smear-positive TB was 174 per 100,000 in persons aged ≥14 years (95% CI: 121–227).The ratio of active to passive case finding was 2:1. Higher rates of smear-positivity were observed among females [AOR: 3.28, 95% CI (1.54–6.77)], and in the age group ≥45 years [AOR: 2.26, 95% CI (1.12–4.59). Conclusions The study revealed that about two-thirds of patients with active TB remain undiagnosed and thus untreated. This may indicate the need for strengthening case detection at the community level. Furthermore, the high burden of TB among females and in the age group ≥45 years warrants appropriate measures to control the disease.
Predictors of perinatal mortality in rural population of Northwest Ethiopia: a prospective longitudinal study
Gashaw Andargie, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Yigzaw Kebede
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-168
Abstract: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance site, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2009 to August 2011. Data were collected by interviewing the mothers or guardians of eligible children. Multiple logistic regressions were employed to identify potential predictors.A total of 1752 eligible children were included in the study. Perinatal mortality rate in the study population was 50.22 per 1000 (95% CI: 39.99, 60.46) total births. In multiple logistic analysis, previous still birth [(AOR = 8.38, 95% CI: 3.94,17.83)], twin birth [(AOR = 7.09, 95% CI: (3.22,15.61)], not receiving tetanus toxoid vaccine during the index pregnancy [(AOR = 3.62,95% CI: 1.57,8.34)], short birth interval of less than 24 months [(AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: (1.61, 4.13)], maternal illiteracy [(AOR = 4.83, 95% CI:(1.45,16.05)] and mothers' running own business [(AOR = 5.40, 95% CI: 1.40,27.96)] were the main predictors associated with increased risk of perinatal death.Predictors of perinatal death in the study area are easily recognizable and potentially preventable with the existing maternal health programs. Efforts need to be intensified in expanding maternal and newborn health services to significantly reduce perinatal mortality in rural settings.
High Loss to Followup and Early Mortality Create Substantial Reduction in Patient Retention at Antiretroviral Treatment Program in North-West Ethiopia
Mamo Wubshet,Yemane Berhane,Alemayehu Worku,Yigzaw Kebede
ISRN AIDS , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/721720
The Clustering of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: A Population Based Cross Sectional Study
Takele Tadesse, Meaza Demissie, Yemane Berhane, Yigzaw Kebede, Markos Abebe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065022
Abstract: Background In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. Methods and Findings A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space–time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001) spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. Conclusion Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.
Death and Seeking Alternative Therapy Largely Accounted for Lost to Follow-up of Patients on ART in Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Tracking Survey
Mamo Wubshet, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Yigzaw Kebede
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059197
Abstract: Background Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan African countries are highly affected by LTF. Tracking patients lost to follow-up and understanding their status is essential to maintain program quality and to develop targeted interventions to prevent LTF. We aimed to determine the outcome and factors associated with LTF. Method A lost to follow-up community tracking survey was conducted to determine the reasons, outcomes and factors associated with LTF at the University of Gondar Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. All patients were tracked at home to ascertain outcome status for lost to follow-up (death and non-death losses). Result Out of the 551 patients LTF, 486 (88.20%) were successfully tracked. Death was the most common reason accounted for 233 (47.94%) of the lost to follow-up. Reasons for non-deaths losses include: stopped antiretroviral treatment due to different reasons, 135(53.36%), and relocation to another antiretroviral treatment program by self- transfer, 118(46.64%). The rate of mortality in the first six months was 72.12 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 61.80–84.24) but this sharply decreased after 12 months to 7.92 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.44–14.41). Baseline clinical characteristics were strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion Death accounts for about half of the loss to follow up. Most deaths occur in the first six months of loss. Seeking alternative therapy is another major reason for loss to follow up. Early tracking mechanisms are necessary to prevent death.
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