Abstract:
Data were collected at the University Hospital of Kigali (CHUK) in a total of 201 HIV-positive hospitalised patients with chronic cough. We simulated management of each patient following the three algorithms. The first was locally tailored by clinicians from CHUK, the second and third were drawn from publications by Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). Semantic analysis techniques known as Clinical Algorithm Nosology were used to compare them in terms of complexity and similarity. For each of them, we assessed the sensitivity, delay to diagnosis and hypothetical harm of false positives and false negatives.The principal diagnoses were tuberculosis (21%) and pneumocystosis (19%). Sensitivity, representing the proportion of correct diagnoses made by each algorithm, was 95.7%, 88% and 70% for CHUK, MSF and WHO, respectively. Mean time to appropriate management was 1.86 days for CHUK and 3.46 for the MSF algorithm. The CHUK algorithm was the most complex, followed by MSF and WHO. Total harm was by far the highest for the WHO algorithm, followed by MSF and CHUK.This study confirms our hypothesis that sensitivity and patient safety (i.e. less expected harm) are proportional to the complexity of algorithms, though increased complexity may make them difficult to use in practice.The algorithmic approach to guidelines has been introduced and promoted on a large scale since the 1970s. This flowchart representation of step-by-step clinical logic guides the management of a patient with symptoms, clinical signs, or results of technical examinations. The transition from one step to the next is mostly dichotomous, which means that only one out of two choices can be made at each step. Moreover, the logic is serial: only one pathway can be followed by a single patient.The original purpose of algorithmic guideline implementation was twofold. First, with continuing concern over the rising costs of health care, health policy makers have been impressed b

Abstract:
A better knowledge of factors organizing crop genetic diversity in situ increases the efficiency of diversity analyses and conservation strategies, and requires collaboration between social and biological disciplines. Four areas of anthropology may contribute to our understanding of the impact of social factors on crop diversity: ethnobotany, cultural, cognitive and social anthropology. So far, most collaborative studies have been based on ethnobotanical methods, focusing on farmers’ individual motivations and actions, and overlooking the effects of farmer’s social organization per se. After reviewing common shortcomings in studies on sorghum and maize, this article analyzes how social anthropology, through the analysis of intermarriage, residence and seed inheritance practices, can contribute to studies on crop genetic diversity in situ. Crop varieties are thus considered social objects and socially based sampling strategies can be developed. Such an approach is justified because seed exchange is built upon trust and as such seed systems are embedded in a pre-existing social structure and centripetally oriented as a function of farmers’ social identity. The strong analogy between farmers’ cultural differentiation and crop genetic differentiation, both submitted to the same vertical transmission processes, allows proposing a common methodological framework for social anthropology and crop population genetics, where the classical interaction between genetic and environmental factors, G × E, is replaced by a three-way interaction G × E × S, where “S” stands for the social differentiation factors.

Abstract:
Analysis was made of 3,923 records of 162 wild Passiflora specimens to assess the distribution of their diversity in Colombia, identify collection gaps, and explore their potential as indicator species. Despite variable collecting density among and within biogeographic regions, the Andean region clearly presents a higher species richness, particularly in the central coffee growing zone and the departments of Antioquia, Cundinamarca and Valle del Cauca. The elevational distribution of diversity shows a small peak below 500 m, and two higher ones between 1,000–2,000 and 2,500–3,000 m. This pattern corresponds to divergent adaptive trends among infrageneric divisions. The analysis on 19 climatic variables showed that the two principal variance components, explaining 77 percent of the total, are respectively associated with temperature and precipitation, without influence of seasonality. Distribution parameters allow recognizing more than 36 narrow endemics. Prediction of species distribution showed nine areas with very high richness (predicted sympatry of 41 to 54 species) in the Andean region, three of which correspond to collection gaps. Endemics were not particularly frequent there, so a prioritization of protected areas based on species richness would not favor their conservation. The sites with high Passiflora diversity are poorly represented in the current system of protected areas. Instead, their striking correspondence with ecotopes of the coffee growing zone imposes a conservation strategy integrating agricultural and environmental management at the landscape level. Reciprocally, several traits of Passiflora species make them particularly suited as indicators for any effort of conservation or restoration in this region of importance for the country.

Abstract:
A periodic plasmonic meta-material was studied using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method to investigate the influence of neighboring particles on the near unity optical absorptivity. The meta-material was constructed as a silver nanoparticle (20-90nm) situated above an alumina (Al$_2$O$_3$) dielectric environment. A full parametric sweep of the particle width and the dielectric thickness was conducted. Computational results identified several resonances between the metal-dielectric and metal-air that have potential to broadening the response through stacked geometry. A significant coupled resonance between the metal-dielectric resonance and a cavity resonance between particles was capture as a function of dielectric thickness. This coupled resonance was not evident below dielectric thicknesses of 40nm and above cavity widths of 20nm. Additionally, a noticeable propagating surface plasmon polariton resonance was predicted when the particle width was half the unit cell length.

Abstract:
Let $\Gamma$ be a metric graph having a linear system $g^r_{2r}$ for some $2 \leq r \leq g-2$ then $\Gamma$ has a linear system $g^1_2$. This is similar to the well-known Clifford's Theorem from the theory of linear systems on smooth projective curves.

Abstract:
A degeneration of a smooth projective curve to a strongly stable curve gives rise to a specialization map from divisors on curves to divisors on graphs. In this paper we show that this specialization behaves well under the presence of real structures. In particular we study real linear systems on graphs with a real structure and we prove results on them comparable to results in the classical theory of real curves. We also consider generalizations to metric graphs and tropical curves.

Abstract:
For all integers $g \geq 6$ we prove the existence of a metric graph $G$ with $w^1_4=1$ such that $G$ has Clifford index 2 and there is no tropical modification $G'$ of $G$ such that there exists a finite harmonic morphism of degree 2 from $G'$ to a metric graph of genus 1. Those examples show that dimension theorems on the space classifying special linear systems for curves do not all of them have immediate translation to the theory of divisors on metric graphs.

Abstract:
On a metric graph we introduce the notion of a free divisor as a replacement for the notion of a base point free complete linear system on a curve. By means of an example we show that the Clifford inequality is the only obstruction for the existence of very special free divisors on a graph. This is different from the situation of base point free linear systems on curves. It gives rise to the existence of many types of divisors on graphs that cannot be lifted to curves maintaining the rank and it also shows that classifications made for linear systems of some fixed small positive Clifford index do not hold (exactly the same) on graphs.

Abstract:
A separating ($M-2$)-curve is a smooth geometrically irreducible real projective curve $X$ such that $X(\mathbb{R})$ has $g-1$ connected components and $X(\mathbb{C})\setminus X(\mathbb{R})$ is disconnected. Let $T_g$ be a Teichm\"uller space of separating ($M-2$)-curves of genus $g$. We consider two partitions of $T_g$, one by means of a concept of special type, the other one by means of the separating gonality. We show that those two partitions are very closely related to each other. As an application we obtain the existence of real curves having isolated real linear systems $g^1_{g-1}$ for all $g\geq 4$.

Abstract:
A smooth real curve is called separating in case the complement of the real locus inside the complex locus is disconnected. This is the case if there exists a morphism to the projective line whose inverse image of the real locus of the projective line is the real locus of the curve. Such morphism is called a separating morphism. The minimal degree of a separating morphism is called the separating gonality. The separating gonality cannot be less than the number s of the connected components of the real locus of the curve. A theorem of Ahlfors implies this separating gonality is at most the g+1 with g the genus of the curve. A better upper bound depending on s is proved by Gabard. In this paper we prove that there are no more restrictions on the values of the separating gonality.